HISTORY TABLE  OF CONTENTS: Theory Part-1 Theory Part-2 Theory Part-3 Theory Part-4 Theory Part-5 Theory ...



India’s history and culture is ancient and dynamic, spanning back to the beginning of human civilization.

The History of India begins with the Indus Valley Civilization, that spread through in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent, from 3300 BC to 1300 BC. This Bronze Age civilization collapsed at the beginning of the second millennium BC and was followed by the Iron Age Vedic period, which extended over much of the Indo-Genetic plains and which witnessed the rise o kingdoms known as the Mahajanapadas.
In the fifth century, large parts of India were united under Ashoka. He also convened to Buddhism, and it is in his region that Buddhism spread to other parts of the Asia. In the reign of Mauryas, Hinduism took shape fundamentally.
In the eight century Islam came to India and by the 11th century it firmly established itself in India. The North Indian dynasties of the Lodhis, Tughlaqs and numerous others, whose remains are visible in Delhi and scattered elsewhere around North India, were finally succeeded by the Mughal empire, under which India once again achieved a large measure of political unity.
The European presence in India date to the seventeenth century, and it is in the latter part of this century that the Mughal Empire began to disintegrate, paving the way for regional states.
During that first half of the 20th century, a nationwide sstrugle for independence was launched by the Indian National Congress, and later joined by the Muslim League. The subcontinent gained independence from Great Britain in 1947, after being partitioned into the dominions of India and Pakistan.

The earth is nearly 4000 million years old and the evolution of its crust has shown four stages. The fourth stage is called the Quaternary which is divided into Pleistocene (most recent) and Holocene (present); the former lasted between 1,000,000 and 10,000 years before the present and the latter began about 10,000 years ago. Man is said to have appeared on the earth in early Pleistocene, but now this event seems to have occurred in Africa about 2.6 million years back. The fossils of the early men have not been found in India.
The implements and tools made in this age were made of stone. That is why, the age is known as the Stone Age. The look of the stone tools and the implements has enabled the archaeologists to divide the Stone Age into following three distinct stages.

Palaeolithic Age Mesolithic Age Neolithic Age
Old stone age Late Stone Age New Stone age
(500,000 - 10,000 BC) (10,000 - 4,000 BC) (6,000 - 1,000 BC)
Palaeolithic Age can be further divided into following:-

Lower Palaeolithic Culture Middle Palaeolithic Culture Upper Palaeolithic Culture
(5,00,000 - 100,00 BC) (100,000 - 40,000 BC) (40,000 - 10,000 BC)
· The New Stone Age or the Copper Age: This state developed about 7,000 years ago. The stone of the tools is refined in this age. The weapons and tools are sharper and refined. These are scattered in north, south, east and western India. By this time the man had control over the supply of food.
· About 5,000 years ago the man started using bronze along with the stone. Tin mixed with the copper was the major material used. That is why, the period is called Bronze age.
· In India the Iron Age commenced around 1000 B.C. Iron is a common element easily available as compared to copper. But in the beginning it has remained a rare element. It was not possible to clear iron from its ore. need more heat for the process.

There are a few other classifications:
1. Chalcolithic Cultures: Chalcolithic cultures of stone-copper age saw the use of metals, the first being copper, along with stone tools. Technologically, chalcolithic age applied to the Pre-Harappans.
2. Pre-Harappan Culture: Various types of Pre-Harappan chalcolithic cultures prompted the spread of communities in Sind, Baluchistan, Rajasthan etc and created conditions for the rise of urban civilization of Harappa.
3. Proto-History: Indus valley civilization forms a part of the proto historic period of Indian history and belongs to Bronze Age.

When a new civilization was discovered at Mohen-jo-Daro and Harappa by Sir John Marshall, then Director General of Archaeology in India and his Indian colleagues in the 1920’s, it was given the name of the Indus valley Civilization.
Harappan/Indus Civilization (2500 BC - 1800 BC)
· The most accepted period - 2500 BC - 1800 BC (by Carbon - 14 dating)
· John Marshall was the first scholar to use the term ‘Indus Civilization’.
· The Indus Civilization belongs to Prom-Historic Period (Chalcolithic Age/ Bronze Age).
· The most appropriate name - Harappan Civilization (Harappa - the first discovered site).
· The Indus Valley Civilization was basically an urban Civilization and the people lived in well- planned and well-built towns, which were also the centres of trade.
· By 1500 BC Harappan culture came to an end. Among the various causes ascribed to the decay of Indus Valley Civilization are the invasion of the Aryans, the recurrent floods and other natural causes like earthquakes, etc.

Town-Planning followed the Grid System. Roads were well cut, dividing the town into large rectangular or square blocks. Lamp posts at intervals indicate the existence of street lightning. Flanking the streets lanes and by-lanes were well-planned houses.
· Used burnt bricks of good quality as the building material. Elsewhere in the contemporary World, mud-bricks were used.
· Houses, often of two or more storey, varied in size, but were quite monotonous - a square courtyard, around which were a number of rooms. No window faced the streets. The houses had tiled bathrooms.
· Good drainage system. Drains were made of mortar, lime and gypsum and covered with large brick slabs for easy cleaning. Shows developed sense of health and sanitation.
· The towns were divided into 2 parts Upper pan or Citadel and Lower Part. The Citadel was an oblong artificial platform some 30-50 feet high and about 400-200 yards in area. It was enclosed by a thick (13 m at Harappa) crenelated mud-brick wall, In Citadel public buildings, granaries, important workshops and religious buildings were there. In lower part people used to live.
· In Mohanjodaro, a big public bath (Great Bath) measuring 12 m by 7 m and 2.4 m in deep, has been found Steps led from either end to the surface, with changing rooms alongside. It was bathing probably used for ritual bathing.

Name of Sites
Daya Ram Sahni
Montgomery district of Punjab (Now in Pak) on the left bank of Ravi
1. City followed grid planning
2. Row of six granaries
3. Only place having evidences of coffin burial
4. Evidence of fractional burial and coffin burial
5. Cemetery-H of alien people.
R.D. Banarjee
Larkana district in Sind on the right bank of Indus (Now in Pak)
1. City followed grid planning
2. A large granary and Great Bath, a college
3. Human skeletons showing invasion and massacre.
4. Evidence of Horse come from superficial level.
5. A piece of woven cotton alongwith spindle whirls and needles
6. Town was flooded more than seven times.
A. Ghosh
Situated in Rajasthan on the Bank of Ghaggar
1. Shows both Pre Harappan and Harappan phase
2. Evidence of furrowed land
3. Evidence of seven fire altars and camel bones
4. Many houses had their own well
5. Kalibangan stand for black bangles
6. Evidence of wooden furrow
S.R. Rao
Situated in Gujarat on the Bhogava river near Gulf of Cambay
1. A titled floor which bears intersecting design of circles
2. Remains of rice husk
3. Evidence of horse from a terracotta figure
4. A ship designed on a seal
5. Beads & trade ports
6. An instrument for measuring angles, pointing to modern day compass
R.S. Bisht
Situated in Hissar district of Haryana
1. Shows both Pre-Harappan and Harppan phase
2. Good quantity of barley found here
R.S. Bisht
Situated in Gujarat in Rann of Kutch
1. Seven cultural stages
2. Largest site
3. Three part of city
4. Unique water management
Y.D. Sharma
Situated in Punjab of the banks of Sutlej
1. Evidence of burying a dog below the human burial
2. One example of rectangular mudbrick chamber was noticed
3. Five fold cultures - Harappan, PGW, NBP, Kushana - Gupta and Medieval
Y.D. Sharma
Situated on Hindon in Ghaziabad
1. The impression of cloth on a trough is discovered
2. Usually considered to be the eastern boundary of the Indus culture

The Aryans came to India in several waves. The earliest wave is represented by the Rig Vedic people who appeared in the subcontinent in about 1500 BC. They came into conflict with the indigenous inhabitants called the Dravidians mentioned as dasa or dasyus in Rig Veda. The Rig Veda mentions the defeat of Sambara by Divodasa, who belonged to the Bharata clan. Possibly the dasyus in the Rig Veda represent the original inhabitants of the country, and an Aryan chief who overpowered them was called Trasadvasyu. The Aryan chief was soft towards the dasas, but strongly hostile to the dasyus. The term dasyuhatya, slaughter of the dasyus, is repeatedly mentioned in the Rig Veda.
Some of the chief tribes of the period were Yadu, Turvasu, Druhyu, Anu Puru, Kuru, Panchala, Bharata and Tritsu. Among the inter-tribal conflicts the most important was the ‘Battle of the Ten Kings.’
· It is believed that before the coming of the Aryans in India, the greater part of Northern and North-Western India was inhabited by a group of people known as Dravidians.
· On arrival of the Aryans, unable to meet their challenge, they gradually moved southwards.
· Perhaps, in India, they were first to use rivers for navigation and irrigation
· The group of Indo-Europeans who moved to Persia and India are known to Aryans.
· The Aryans are the original inhabitants of Central Asia.
· They arrived in India around 1500 BC, though there is an ongoing debate.
· The region where the Aryans settled in India was called Sapta Sindhu (also referred to as the Brahmavarta)
· The Aryans established themselves in India by defeating the natives whom they called Dasas or Dasyus
· The period when the Aryans first settled in India, is known as Early Vedic Period (1500 BC to 1000 BC)
· The Aryans spread to Indo-Gangetic plains in the later Vedic Period and this region came to be known as Aryavarta (1000 BC to 600 BC)

Early Vedic Age:
The Vedic age began in India in about 1500 BC and extend upto 6000 BC with the corning of the Aryan, who scattered on the plains of northern India. Max Muller believes it an anomaly to regard the race as Aryan because scientifically Aryan connotes nothing but language. The, relationship between the race and language of these people with the classical languages of Europe was established by a Bavarian Franz Bopp in 1816.
Aryans developed Vedic culture based on Vedas. The meaning of the word Veda is “knowledge”, the best of all knowledge in the eyes of Hindus. It is a collection of hymns, prayers, charms, litanies and sacrificial formulae. There are four Vedas, namely, Rig Veda, Sam Veda, Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda.

· Origin of Indian Music - Samveda
· Mention of Word ‘Shudra’ - Rigveda 10th Mandala
· Gayatri Mantra - Rigveda
· Mention of word ‘Yajna’ - Brahmana
· Somaras (drink) - Rigveda (9th Mandala)
· Varna - Rigveda
· Four fold division of Society - Rigveda 10th Mandala
· Mention of four Ashrams - Jabala Upanishada
· War between Aryan & Dasas - Rigveda
· Transmigration of Soul - Brahadaranyka Upanishada
· Five divisions of India - Aiteraya Brahamana
· Wife and Husband are complementary - Satapathabrahmana
· Battle of Ten kings - Rigveda (7th Mandala)
· Superiority of Brahmins - Aiteraya Brahmana
· Rajanaya - Rigveda 10th Mandala
· Marut as Agriculturist - Satpatha Brahmana
· Satyameva Jayate - Mundaka Upanishada
· Pashupath Shiva - Atharveda
· Vishnu - Satapatha Brahmana
· Conversion between Yam & Nachiketa - Katha Upanishada

· Collection of hymns and the oldest of all vedas
· Association of 1017 hymns or Suktas after adding “Blhilya Sukta” number is 1028
· Compiled in 10 ‘mandalas’ & 8 ‘Akhtaks’.
· Also contains the famous Gayatri Mantra
· The Tenth “Mandalas” or chapter which has the “Purushasukta” hymn, probably added later
· Mandala IX is completely devoted to ‘Soma’.
· Mandala II to VII were created by Grita Samada, Vishwamitra, Vamadeva, Atri, Bharadwaj, Vashistha, VIII Kanwa and Angira, IX Soma
· Rhthmic compilation of hymns for Rigveda
· “Book for Chants” contains 1,549 hymns, meant to be sung at the ‘soma’ sacrifice by a special class of Brahmanas called Udgatris. But the Samaveda has very little original value.
· Has only 75 fundamental hymns
1. Karnataka - Jaiminga
2. Gujarat - Kanthun
3. Maharashtra - Ranayaniya
· Sung by Udgatri
· Book of sacrifical prayers
· Rituals of yajnas
· Is sung of priest “Adhavaryu”
· Its mantras tell us how the sacrifices were to be performed and what part the “Adhvaryus” - the Brahmanas who performed the manual work in the arrangement of sacrifice were to play at the time of sacrifice.
· Has been divided into, Krishna (black) Yajurveda & Shukla (white) Yajurveda
· Prose text
· Mantras for magic spells
· Populate ritualistic system & superstitions
· Associated with “Saunkiya” and “Paiplad” community
· Collection of 711/731/760 hymns
· Not included in ‘Trai’
· Has been divided in 20 “Kandas”
· Provides freedom from evils spirits.
· Oldest text on Indian Medicine.

The vast literature of the Aryans is divided into two parts:
1. Sruti 2. Smriti
1. Sruti Literature
The word Veda has been derived from the Sanskrit word Ved, which means ‘spiritual knowledge’. The Vedas are four in number - Rig Veda, Samaveda, Yajurveda, and Atharvaveda. The Rig Veda contains references only to the first three Vedas which suggests that the fourth Veda was composed at some later date.
The Vedic literature is usually divided into three periods:-
(i) The Mantra period when the Samhitas were composed
(ii) Brahaman period when the Brahamanas, Upanishads and Aranyakas were composed
(iii)The Sutra period.
These three periods succeeded or overlap each other.
Brahmanas are massive prose text which contain speculation of the meaning of the hymns, give precepts for their application, relate stories of their origin in connection with sacrificial rites and explain the secret meaning of the later.
1. Rigveda Aitereya and Kaushitaki
2. Samaveda Tandya and Jaiminiya
3. Yajurveda Tattiriya and Satpatha
4. Atharvaveda Gopatha
The Aranyakas are the concluding parts of the Brahamanas. It does not lay much stress on rites, rituals and sacrifices, but merely contain the philosophy and mysticism. They deal with the problems of soul, origin and elaments of universe and the creation of universe.

· Literally, it means ‘Jungle’
· Provides description of Moral Science and Philosophy
· Provides details of hermits and saints who lived in Jungles
· Give stress on meditation
· Protests the system of ‘Yajnas’
It would be appropriate to describe Upanishadas as mystic writings. There are 108 Upanishads in all, the most prominent of them being Ish, Prasana, Aitareya, Taittiriya, Chhandogaya, Kathoupanishad, Ishopanishad, Brehadaranyaka, etc.

· Literary meaning is ‘Sutra’ (to sit near masters feet) in which Guru offers band of knowledge to their disciples
· Is a combination of Tatva-mimansa and philosophy
· They are also called “Vedanta”
· Primitive upanishada are “Brahadaranyaka” and “Chandogya”
· Later Upanishada like “Katha” and “Swetaswatar” have been written in poetic forms.
· Brahma is the summary of philosophy, which is the only a ‘truth’ in the world.
· Knowledge awards salvation says Upanishadas
2. Smriti Literature
Smriti is traditional knowledge and designates almost the entire body of post-Vedic classical Sanskrit literature. Smriti literature generally includes the following overlapping subjects:-
a. The Vedangas: They refer to certain branches of post-Vedic studies regarded as auxiliary to the Vedas. The Vedangas are conventionally divided into six heading namely:-
(i) Kalpa or the ritual canon, including the dharma shastras or legal codes,
(ii) jyotisha or astronomy,
(iii) Siksha or phonetics,
(iv) Chhanda or metre
(v) Nirukta or etymology
(vi) Vyakarana (Grammer)
b. The Shad-Darsana: Six orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy, namely Nyaya, Vaiseshikha, Sankhya, Yoga, Mimamsa and Vedanta.
c. Itihasa: Legendary or semi-legendary works, specifically the Ramayana and Mahabharata and often extended to the Puranas.
d. Puranas: Being a fairly late description of ancient legends, they are heavily coloured with the superstitions. They are 18 in number.
1. Brahma Purana 2. Vishnu Purana
3. Shiva Purana 4. Padma Purana
5. Shrimad Bhagwat Purana 6. Agni Purana
7. Narad Purana 8. Markandey Purana
9. Bhavishya Purana 10. Ling Purana
11. Varah Purana 12. Vaman Purana
13. Brahm Vaivertya Purana 14. Shanda Purana
15. Surya Purana 16. Matsya Purana
17. Garuda Purana 18. Brahmand Purana
e. Upaveda: Also known as the auxiliary Vedas, they deal with medicine, architecture, erotics, archery and various arts and crafts. These were partly derived from original Vedic texts and were traditionally associated with one or other of the Vedas.
f. Tantras: Tantras are the writings of Shakta or Shaivite sects and also of certain antinomian Buddhist scholars
g. Agamas: They are scriptures of sectarian Hindus like Vaishnavites, Shaivites and Shaktas.

h. Upangas: They are a generic name for any collection of treatises although traditionally confined to the philosophical systems of ‘Nyaya’ and ‘Mimansa’ - the Dharma Sutras’ the Turanas’ and the Tantras’ 
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