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Word Power & Vocabulary TABLE  OF CONTENTS: Theory Part-1 Theory Part-2 Theory Part-3 Theory Part-4 Theory ...


Word Power & Vocabulary

Theory Part-4

Precedence
Priority, preference
Inferiority
Precipitate
Hasten, expedite, impetuous, impulsive
Delay, retard, cautions, Impassive, thoughtful
Preclude
Prevent, stop, hinder, hamper
Help, allow, permit
Predicate
Assert, affirm
Deny, doubt
Prefatory
Introductory, opening
Concluding, final
Prejudiced
Biased, slanted, subjective
Unbiased, disinterested
Pretence
Affectation, show, show off
Sincerity, reality
Prey
Victim, capture
Captor, hunter
Proclamation
Announcement, ordinance
Silence
Prodigal
Extravagant
Miser, economic
Profane
Unconsecrated, impious
Sacred, religious
Profound
Deep, fathomless, excess
Shallow, abstruse
Profuse
Lavish, prodigal
Meager, sharing
Progeny
Descendant, offspring
Ancestors
Prolific
Productive, fruitful
Unproductive, barren
Prohibit
Ban, debar, enjoin, forbid
Endorse, permit, allow
Prone
Inclined, prostrate
Averse, upright
Propel
Press,push, shove, thrust, urge
Discourage,pull, stop
Proscribe
Outlaw, denounce
Pardon, forgive
Prosecute
Indict, purse
Abandon, defend
Prototype
Archetype, exemplar, ideal,original
Copy, counterpart, duplicate
Provident
Foreseeing, thrifty
Improvident, extravagant
Provisional
Conditional, contingent, tentative, dependent
Conclusive, definite, permanent
Prudent
Judicious, cautious, economical,frugal
Imprudent, injudicious, incautious
Pungent
Sharp, stinking
Mild, harmless
Quack
Charlatan,imposter
Professional, qualified
Quash
Cancel, nullify
Ratify, confirm, restore
Quell
Calm, placate, subdue
Noisy
Quench
Extinguish, put out
Light, ignore, arouse
Radiance
Brilliancy, luster
Dullness, dimness
Radical
Fundamental, organic
Superficial,incomplete
Ragged
Torn, jagged,imperfect, uneven, tattered, unkempt
Un torn, even, complete, well kept, new, smooth
Raid
Foray, incursion,invasion,sortie
Depress, descend, lower
Random
Casual, desultory, haphazard
Formal, invariable, orderly,systematic
Rancid
Tainted, sour
Untainted, sweet
Rational
Intelligent, reasonable
Irrational,foolish
Rebuff
Reprimand, rebuke
Encourage, approve
Recede
Retire, withdraw
Advance, retreat
Reciprocal
Mutual, correlative
Selfish, individual
Reckless
Rash, regardless
Cautious, prudent
Rectify
Repair, renew, remedy, renovate
Destroy,trash

Word
Synonyms(similar meaning)
Antonyms (opposite meaning)
Redundant
Exuberant, excessive
Scanty, deficient
Relinquish
Abandon, abdicate, cede, renounce, resign, yield
Retain, cherish, process, maintain
Remission
Abatement, relaxation
Increase, augmentation
Repudiate
Renounce, reject
Allow, admit
Repugnant
Distasteful, offensive
Agreeable, pleasant
Repulsive
Abhorrent, adominable, disgusting, loathsome
Admirable, alluring, amiable charming
Respite
Pause, cessation
Continuance, perpetuity
Restoration
Recovery, reinstatement
Destruction, with holding
Restraint
Check, hindrance
Freedom, frankness
Retrospect
Review
Prospect
Reveal
Publish, disclose
Conceal, hide
Revive
Renew, reanimate
Depress, deject
Revolt
Rebel, mutiny
Loyal , obey , submit
Ridiculous
Uprightness, goodness
Ungodliness, dishonesty
Robust
Strong, hale, stout, lusty
Thin, lean, weak, fragile
Ruinous
Dilapidated, harmful
Whole, sound
Rupture
Breach, break, tear
Union, attachment
Rustic
Rural, simple, rude
Urbane, polished
Sacrilegious
Profane, impious
Pious, reverent
Sacred
Blessed, consecrated
Temporal, worldly
Sad
Dejected, depressed, despondent, disconsolate
Joyous, blithe, cheerful, jubilant, lively
Saddle
Load, burden
Unload, disburden
Sane
Sound, healthy, sensible, reasonable,
Unsound, confused, unreasonable, insane
Saucy
Impertinent,  rude
Polite, reserved
Sarcastic
Biting, caustic, cutting, sardonic
Complimentary , flattering, favourable
Scandal
Shame, infamy, slander
Credit, praise
Scanty
Insufficient, meager, inadequate, scarce
Abundant, plentiful, adequate
Scatter
Sprinkle, disperse, diffuse, disseminate
Retain ,hold, gather, unite
Skeptic
Agnostic, atheist, doubter, unbeliever
Believer bigot, religious, zealot
Seclusion
Separation, withdrawal
Publicity, union
Secular
Temporal, civil, lay, profane, worldly
Religious, eternal, pious
Sedate
Calm, composed, sober, serious, solemn, staid
Perturbed, agitated, flighty, light-hearted
Seductive
Alluring, enticing, attractive, luring
Repelling, chill, dissuade
Semblance
Resemblance, likeness
Unlikeness
Sensual
Carnal, fleshly
Ascentic, spiritual
Servile
Slavish, menial
Masterly, lordly
Shackle
Fetter, hamper, tied-down
Loose, release, free
Shuffle
Mix, confuse
Clear, frank
Slender
Slim, fragile, weak, thin, petite
Fat, bulky, stout, strong
Sloth
Torpor, inactive, lazy
Active, vigorous
Smite
Strike , beat, hit
Spare, repair
Snug
Close, comfortable
Uncomfortable, afar
Smudge
Soil, besmirch, dirty
Bleach, clean , purify
Sober
Moderate, calm
Cex, pain, irritation
Solemn
Formal, ceremonial
Informal, profane
Solicitude
Care, concern
Careless, unconcerned
Solitary
Lone, single, secluded
Companionable, sociable
Sordid
Dirty, foul, filthy

Sovereign
Royal, regal, authority
Subject, ineffectual
Speculation
Though, theory,
Action, fact
Speculator
Barracker, observer
Performer, participant
Splendid
Gorgeous, sumptuous
Shabby, cheap
Spontaneous
Voluntary, without preparation
Involuntary, with prior preparation, planned
Spurious
Illegitimate, forget, counterfeit, shoddy
Genuine, authentic, accurate, sincere
Squander
Dissipate, waste
Save, economize
Stagnant
still, motionless, stationary
Running, moving, in action
Stake
Risk, hazard,
Shirk, avoid
Staunch
Firm, resolute
Infirm, unsteady
Steadfast
Fixed, established
Unifixed, infirth
Steep
Abrupt, precipitous
Flat, gentle, level
Sterile
Arid, barren, childless, unfruitful
Bearing, fruitful, viable, yielding, productive
Stimulate
Arouse, stir
Calm, tranquil
Stout
Strong, robust, portly
Thin, lean, weak,
Stray
Wander, err, deviate
Stay, continue
Stringent
Astringent, contracting, tight
Relaxing, gentle
Strip
Denude, uncover, bare
Cover, clothe
Stubborn
Obstinate, unyielding, adamanut, inflexible
Adaptable, docile, yielding, tractable, low, depressed
Sublime
High, exalted
Low, depressed
Subdue
Check, constrain, curb, repress, restrain, suppress
Incite, stimulate
Subservient
Ancillary, inferior, unscrupulous
Superior, leading , scrupulous
Subsistence
Living, existence
Starvation, perishing,
Subtle
Nice, delicate, rare, thin, crafty
Rough, coarse, unrefined, gaudy,
Subvert
Overthrow, destroy
Reconstruct, restore,
Sumptuous
Costly, expensive
Cheap, simple, inexpensive
Superfluous
Redundant, useless, harmful, unprofitable
Useful, beneficial, profitable, serviceable
Superlative
Highest, greatest
Lowest, smallest
Surmise
Suspect, suppose
Know, be sure, exact, precise
Susceptible
Sensitive, impressionable
Insusceptible, hard
Suspicious
Doubtful, questionable
Certain, trustful , clear
Swell
Dilate, expand, bulge
Diminish, lessen, deflate
Symbolical
Typical, representative
Actual
Synonymous
Equivalent, similar
Dissimilar, contrary, opposite
Tacit
Implied, implicit
Explicit, expressed
Taciturn
Close, reticent, uncommunicative,
Communicative, open, unreserved, talkative
Tangible
Tactile, substantial
Impalpable, unreal
Tantamount
Equivalent, equal, equal to,
Unequal, non- equivalent
Taunt
Jeer, flour,  scoff, gibe
Soothe, commend, praise
Tedious
Wearisome ,irksome
Delightful, agreeable
Tenacity
Adhesiveness, obstinacy
Looseness, inertia
Terrestrial
Earthy, worldy
Heavenly, celestial
Testimony
Witness, deposition
Concealment, denial
Theatrical
Dramatic, showy, histrionic
Natural, real, prosaic
Terse
Compendious, laconic, concise, brief
Lengthy, talkative tedious, verbose
Thrifty
Provident, economical
Prodigal, uneconomic
Thriftless
Wasteful, improvident, spendthrift
Cautious, frugal, miserly, thrifty
Thwart
Oppose, frustrate, balk, foil, inhibit
Help, advance, pemit, allow
Torment
Pain, torture
Comfort, easy , tranquil
Tortuous
Twisted, winding, crookd
Straight, honest, simple
Tranquil
Calm, quite, composed, peaceful
Disturbed, agitated
Treachery
Disloyalty, perfidy
Loyalty, faith
Trench
Infringe, trespass
Respect, observe
Trivial
Paltry, petty, insignificant
Significant, important
Turbulent
Blustering, riotous, stormy, violent
Tranquil, peaceful
Turmoil
Bustle, confusion, hurry
Quiet, peaceful
Turpitude
Baseness, depravity, wickedness,  vileness
Worthiness, goodness
Tyrant
Despot,  autocrat
Constitutional, sovereign
Unethical
Amoral, immoral, unprincipled, unscrupulous
Moral, principled, scrupulous
Word
Synonyms (similar meaning)
Antonyms( opposite meaning)
Unanimous
Accordant, harmonious
Discordant, disagreeing
Unique
Single, unmatched
Common, frequent
Uphold
Back, champion, defend
Betray, destroy, drop
Urbane
Cultivated, genteel, sophisticated
Brusque, gauche, vulgar
Urbanity
Civility, politeness
Rudeness, harshness
Utopian
Ideal, imaginary
Practice, real,
Vagrant
Wandering, roaming
Settled, homely
Vacillation
Hesitation, wavering,
Decision, firmness
Vagrant
Wandering, roaming
Settled, homely
Vague
Uncertain, indefinite
Certain, definite, sure
Vain
Empty, worthless
Useful, effective
Valiant
Brave, gallant
Cowardly, unheroic
Validity
Efficiency, authority
Inefficiency, weakness
Vanish
Disappear, pass way
Appear, live, survive
Vehement
Violent, boisterous
Weak, cold, uncover
`verbose
Wordy, diffuse, long-winded, repetitious
Terse, silent, speechless
Veracity
Truth, reality, correctness
Fiction,  unreality
Vexatious
Annoying, harassing, irritating, knotty
Satisfying, please, soothing, easy
Vicious
Faulty, defective, corrupt, depraved
Perfect, incorrupt, moral,
Viable
Fertile, fruitful,
Aborted, sterile, untenable
Vigour
Power, strength
Weakness, sickness
Vindictive
Revengeful, spiteful, malevolent, malicious
Benevolent, kindly , forgiving, friendly, generous,  humane
Vivid,
Lively, clear
Dull, unimpressive
Vogue
Fashion, trend
Unpopular, outdated, passé
Voluntary
Spontaneous, free
Involuntary
Voracious
Greedy, ravenous
Satiable, satisfied
Vulnerable
Weak, exposed, untenable, defenseless
Fortified, strong, invulnerable, guarded, invincible
Wariness
Caution, circumspection , vigilance, watchfulness
Incautious, careless
Warrant
Guarantee, certify, authorize
Forbid, disallow
Wear some
Fatiguing, irksome, tiring, tedious
Refreshing ,restful
Whimsical
Freakish, fanciful, eccentric, capricious
Serious, staid, normal
Wistful
Pensive, thoughtful, dreamy, moody, nostalgic
Cheerful, happy, heedless, airy, flippant
Wretched
Unfortunate, sa,d miserable dismal, sorry,
Fortunate, happy, joyous, contended
Wrinkle
Fold, crease, crimp, pleat
Smooth surface, flat, straighten
Yearn
Hanker, long, pine, crave, covet, long for
Be satisfied, to contended
Yield
Forgo,  give in , surrender, relinquish,
Resist, withhold, refuse
Yoke
Link, bondage, slavery
Freedom, liberty
Zeal
Passion
Apathy, weakness
Zest
Brio, dash, drive, energy, gusto, pleasure.
Dullness, blandness, exhaustion, dislike, weariness, distaste

List of words commonly confused and misused

Word
Meaning
Usage
1.Accept
To receive with favor, willingness or consent
All boys accept sunil as their leader
except
Other than; but; otherwise than
They invited everybody to their party except me.
2.Accede
To give one’s consent
Sunita will accede to the wishes of her husband
Exceed
To surpass or go beyond the limit
You can save petrol if you don’t exceed the 80 km/hour speed limit
3.Advice
Council given to encourage (Noun)
The lawyer will offer advice to the client
Advise
To give advice, to notify (verb)
Your lawyer will advise  you to sign the contract
4.Adapt
To adjust  to a situation o environment
The workers had to adapt to the cold climate of jammu and Kashmir
Adopt
To take as one’s own
The union will adopt a new constitution.
Adept
Highly skilled, proficient
An adept tennis player will win the match
5.affect
To influence to produce a change (note the a in affect and in change )
To warn weather will affect growth of the palm tress
Effect
As a verb means “ to bring about ,to (note e in effect and in result )
The prime minister will effect a change in his cabinet .She stressed the effect of wars on the economy .
6 already
Before or by the time specified
They have already completed the project
All ready
Completely prepared
We are already completed the project
7.altogether
Wholly or thoroughly
That type of rule is altogether unnecessary
All together
In a group
They were all together in the hall
8 any one
Any person
Any one can sweep the floor 
Any one
A specify person or thing in a group
Any one of these men can sweep the floor
9Assure
To make something certain ; to promise
She assured me that my vacation would not be postponed,
Ensure
To make sure or secure
Registering the letter will ensure its delivery
Insure
Protect  against loss or risk
All states require car owners to insure their vehicle
10.Beside
By the side of
 I sat beside the window
Besides
In additional to / other than
Sanjay has income besides his salary
11Complement
Something which completes (note the e in the middle of complete  and complement)
A good sauce will complement. The flavors of the curry.
Compliment
A flattering comment, or, as a verb, to flatter
The teacher paid a compliment to Neetu
12.complementary
Completing or suppying needs
His talents and hers are complementary
.Complimentary
Expressing praise or given free
He made several complimentary remarks
13.Council
A group of elected o appointed people
The matter is before the Church council
Counsel
As a noun, means advise; or a lawyer; as a verb means to advise
We offer counsel to all who ask. She acted on he advise of her counsel.
14discreet
Tactful;careful not to say or Do any thing wrong
Ashi is a discreet lady
 Discrete
Disconnected from other separate or distinct 
The programmer will study several discrete systems.
15.everyone
Every person
Every one is ready to leave
Every one
Every person of group
Every one of the team members is ready to leave
16Formally
In a manner prescribe by
The president acted formally at the commencement.
Formerlys
Beforehand; previous
Formerly , she had been a member of the council.
17.Forever
Continuously
He was forever  complaining about the bus service
For ever
Eternally
I shall be here forever if the bus doesn’t come
18Imply
To suggest  without stating ( the write or speaker implies)
His statement implies that he will resign. Your letter seems to imply that I have refused to see him.
Infer
To reach a conclusion based on evidence ( the reader or listener infers)
From his statement I infer that he will resign. I infer from your letter that you think I refused to see him
14Likely
Probable, or to expected
My favorite song is likely to win an award
Liable
Legally responsible, susceptible to something unpleasant
Rakesh is liable to cut his foot with the power saw.
Moral
Pertaining to right conduct or ethical
What is the moral of this story? It is your moral duty
Morale
A cheerful , confident state of mind
Has he morale of the team improved?
21 principal
As an adjective ,means ‘chief’and as a noun means ‘chief official’.
The principal of the college is the person in charge .if you put an amount of money in your savings account ,the principal earns interest for you
Principle
Rule or fundamental  truth note think of the “le” at the end of principles as of rule
What principle guides your life?
The principle of law protects women and minorities
22 sight
Act of seeing ;that which is seen
The rockies are a beautiful sight
Site
Place or location
The site of the new building is near the bus stand .
Cite
To bring forward as proof : to quote an authority ;to summon to appear in court
We can cite several authors to support our view .The judge will cite the defendant
23 stationery
Letter paper
Did you receive our letter written on new stationery ?
Stationary
Standing still,motionless
The flywheel turns but the boiler is stationary .

(Note: The “e” in the word “stationery” and the “e’s” in word “letter” match. Also, note “a” at the end of the word “stationary” and the “a” in stand).
List of the compound words
Some common compound words may be either written as one word or as two separate words depending on the context. The following is a list of some such words:
 (b)      Already and all ready
The goods have already been dispatched.
 'Already' is an adverb meaning 'previously'.
The order is all ready to be dispatched.
All ready' is used as 'all prepared'.

(c)       Altogether and all together
 She is altogether too lazy to complete the job.
 Altogether' is used as an adverb, meaning entirely'.
The files are all together on his desk.
All together means 'in a group'.

(d)       Always and all ways
Ramesh has always done his work efficiently.
Always' means. 'at all times'.
They have tried in all ways to solve the problem.
All way is used as 'by the means'.
 (e)      Anyone and any one.
Anyone could understand the motive.
Anyone means 'anybody'.
Any one of you could have gone to the meeting. `
Any one' is used as 'any person of a group'.

Note: anyway is singular. The colloquial usage "anyways" is incorrect
(f)          Anyway, and any way
Anyway, we can't let him go this time.
Anyway' is used as an adverb, meaning 'in any case'.
If I can be of help in any way, please let me know.
Any way' is used as a noun; i.e. in any manner.

(g)       Everyday and every day
The new accountant soon picked up the everyday routine of the department. `
Everyday' is used as an adjective, meaning 'daily' or 'ordinary'.
She has telephoned almost every day this week.
`Everyday' means 'each day'.

(h)       Everyone and every one
Everyone likes to be admired.
 'Everyone' means 'everybody'.
Every one of the employees was paid.
'Every one' means 'each person, without exception.'

(i)         Indifferent and in different
 Ram was an indifferent worker in our factory.
'Indifferent' is used as an adjective, meaning 'without interest'.
 appreciated our idea, but he wished it expressed in different words.
'In different' is used as 'other'. Example: In a different situation.

 (J)      Indirect and in direct
 Indirect lighting is very satisfactory in an office.
 Indirect is used as an adjective, meaning 'not direct'
.This order is in direct conflict with the policy of our company
. Note: "In direct" means exactly/upfront. Example: In direct response to a statement.
(K)       Into and in to
She immediately walked into my office. `
Into' implies motion from without to within.
All documents are to be sent in to the Chief Engineer's office.
 Sheela came in to see me in the morning.
`In to' is a two-word phrase in which in is an adverb.
(L)       Maybe and may be
 If I don't receive a letter today, maybe we should send a FAX message to him.
'Maybe' is an adverb, meaning 'perhaps'.
Mr. Satish Kumar may be (used as a verb) in his office tomorrow.
 (m)     Nobody and no body.10
There was nobody in the office today.
"Nobody" means 'no person'.
 No body of the staff is more efficient than you.

(n)       Someone and some one
Someone should do this typing.
 'Someone' means 'somebody'.
 Some one of the staff has done this.
'Some one' is used as 'one particular person'.

(o)       Sometime, sometimes and some time
The goods will be shipped sometime next month.
'Sometime' is an adverb, meaning 'an unspecified' or 'indefinite' time, usually in the future. Sometimes reports in newspapers are wrong.
 'Sometimes' in used as an adverb, meaning 'usually' or 'now and then'.
 It took her some time to compile the report.
'Some time' is a two-word phrase that refers to 'passage of time'.

(p)       Whoever and who ever
Who ever is appointed should join immediately. (i.e. `no matter who')
 Who ever makes such a statement?
 It implies two distinct words. 



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