english-verbal-notes-word-power-and-vocabulary-theory-part2

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Word Power & Vocabulary TABLE  OF CONTENTS: Theory Part-1 Theory Part-2 Theory Part-3 Theory Part-4 Theory ...


Word Power & Vocabulary

Theory Part-2

Common Suffixes

Suffix
Meaning
Examples
Able, ible
Able to be, capable of being
Pourable, drinkable, readable, washable, curable, visible, flexible, collectible
Ance, ancy
State of, process of
Performance, reliance, defiance, radiance acceptance, ascendancy, discrepancy, infancy
Ator
One who does (the verb)
Terminator, culminate, agitator, instigator, generator, incubator, accelerator, invigorator, elevator
Dom
Condition, office, state
Kingdom, freedom, wisdom, sheikdom, fiefdom
Ee
One who receives
Payee, mortgagee, employee, appointee, abductees, examinee, referee, refugee
Er, or
One who does (the verb)
Driver, hiker, reader, manager, polisher, speaker, counsellor, author, creator, director, sculptor
Ful
Filled with
Frightful, delightful, wonderful, cupful, wakeful, bashful, bountiful, beautiful, cheerful, colourful, dreadful, fateful
Ify
To make into
Purify, deify, simplify, clarify, petrify, reify, exemplify, pacify
Ification
Process of making into
 Purification, deification, simplification, clarification, petrification
Ish
The nature of, resembling
 Cornish, irish, bookish, freakish, foolish, boorish, selfish, sluggish, priggish
Ism
Doctrine, system, characteristic quality
Capitalism, heroism, optimism, scepticism, realism, patriotism, communism, idealism, conservatism
Ist
One who performs; an adherent of an ism
Cellist, idealist, communist, realist, moralist, pharmacist, pragmatist
Ize
To make into
Rationalization, normalization,
Realize, capitalize, sterilize, dramatize, utilize, colorize
Less
Without, lacking
 Loveless, fearless, worthless, nameless, baseless, bottomless, effortless, friendless, noiseless, harmless
Ization
The process of making into
 Rationalization, normalization, realization capitalization, dramatization






















In some ways words are like families, just  as there  are different relationships among members of the same family, there are different relationships among words, picture your own family. You probably have relatives who like to do the same things you do. But they may look nothing like you. You may have relatives who are from another city. They might have unusual accents and all “sound alike.” There are probably still others who are rebels. They always want the opposite of what everyone else in family wants.
There are similar relationships between words. Words that mean the same thing but look different are called synonyms. Their meaning are very similar) e.g., pretty/cute_. An antonym is a word that has the opposite meaning of another word (e.g., pretty/ugly).
 A homonyms is a word that sound like another word but has different meaning e.g., there/their).
Because these terms are often confused, here is an easy way to keep them straight.
Heard alike
Same meaning
An opposite
O
Y
M
M
N
T
O
O
O
N
N
N
Y
Y
Y
M
M
M




Words are related in many other ways as well. When thinking about the relationship between two words, you must examine those words for ways in which they are different, alike or related to each other.

Using word relationship
Many kinds of word relationships are possible. When looking at relationships the order of the words is important. Changing the order changes the relationship. In word relationships, the colon (:) is an abbreviation of the phrase “is to. “ For example, instead of “white is to black,” “white: black” is written. Like all abbreviations, this one saves space and time. Again, remember that there are countless kinds of relationships that can be constructed.
Common word relationships
Relationship
Definition
Examples
Synonyms
Two words have the same or nearly the same meaning
Dirty: nasty, worn: used, calm; peaceful
Antonyms
One word means the opposite of another
Jot: cold, late: early, new:old

Relationship
Definition
Examples
Homonym
Two words sound alike
Blue: blew, lie: lye, here: hear
Part to whole
 A piece or portion of something is related to the total object
Toe: foot, sole: shoe, leaf: plant, wall: room
Whole to part
 The whole is related to one of its parts
Tree: trunk, house: room, coat: sleeve
Age or size
An animate (living) or inanimate (nonliving ) object is related to a younger or older object of the same type
Fawn: deer, freshman: senior, calf; cow, mother: child
Rhyme
Although items do not begin with the same sound/letter, the ending sounds are the same
Goat: boat, trouble: bubble, sow: toe, light : kite
Person to location
  A person is related to the place with which he is associated
Sailor : ship, criminal: jail, president: white house
Object to use
something is related to its function
Oven: bake, soap: lean, broom: sweep
Source to object
The place from which an item is taken and the item are compared
Pound: stray dog, bakery: cookies, mind: thought


Answering vocabulary or synonyms and antonyms question
The first step towards successfully answering any test question understands what is being asked in the question. It is a good idea to familiarize yourself beforehand with the general nature of the directions for each type of question. However, no matter how familiar you are with the direction, be sure to read them carefully at in the section, you will find questions set on synonyms, antonyms and other related topics. The following hints will help you tackle them:
Suggestions for answering antonyms tests
 1.  Go through the directions carefully, so that you are know what you are being asked to do. This applies to all tests. The time spent in reading and understanding directions is NOT wasted.
2. While answering antonyms questions, be careful not get tricked. The choices may include synonyms as well as antonyms for the word.
Procedure to be followed (THE PRATHAM EDGE)
1.    If you sure about the meaning of the word, think of its antonyms ( a word opposite in meaning to a given word) before you look for an answer because this will help prevent from picking a synonyms.
2.    You cannot find an antonym unless you know what the word means. Use the following formula statement in order to focus on the task: word ‘x’ means (state a synonyms for word ‘x’) and the opposite is (state your selection from among the choices).

Example:
ELITE
(a) Bright             (b) highest class    (c) dark          (d) down-trodden
Applying the formula statement suggested above. You would say ‘Elite’ means ‘highest classes or upper strata’ of society, and the opposite of it is ‘down-trodden’
Choosing the answer that is most nearly correct from among the answer choices you are given. Sometimes, the given choices may not be the same word you would use as an antonym. If you find a word that seems to be the best of the possible choices, there is a good chance that you have the correct answer
Example:
SADNESS
(a) Elation                   (b) interest              (c) happiness                    (d) sorrow
Although all the words, except ‘sorrow’, have some element that shows of sadness, the word ‘elation s the furthest from ‘sadness’ and the BEST answer here.
Definition: Many words have multiple meaning. Sometimes the first reaction to a given word may trigger an alternate meaning that is not intended in the given context:
FAIR
(a)White                (b) bright             (c) prejudiced                              (d) judicious
 Fair means ‘unbiased and just’. The opposite is prejudiced.

Your first reaction might have been that ‘fair’ means ‘bright’ or ‘white’, referring to complexion, but there are no choices like ‘dark’ or ‘dull’, which would have been opposites (antonyms). In such cases, it is necessary to consider other meanings for the given word. If the given word seems familiar, but no opposites seem to be among the alternatives offered, ask yourself whether the word has another or several other meanings.
Determine from the given choices only: very few words in the English language have exact synonyms (words that exactly the same in their meanings) and can be used in all contexts alike. ‘I am sick ‘ and ‘I am ill’ are interchangeable expressions. However, the expression ‘ an ill wind’ ‘an ill0feeling’ cannot be interchanged. It is important that you are directed to find a word that is most nearly opposite in meaning to the word
CONCEAL
           (a)To steal                       (b) unveil         (c) deny                             (d) revere
Answer (b)
‘Conceal’ means ‘cover’ or ‘remove from sight’ and the opposite is ‘unveil’, which means ‘to disclose’
 Or ‘reveal’. But ‘unveil’ usually means ‘remove a veil or covering from’. Word like expose’ or ‘reveal’ are probably more opposite in meaning to ‘conceal’ than is ‘unveil’ but unveil’ is the only word among the choices that is opposite to the given word.

It is, therefore, the one most nearly opposite in meaning to the given word. The answer may be less than perfect antonyms, but if it is most nearly the opposite of the given word, it is the correct answer choice.

Finding the meaning of a word when you are not sure you know it
If you have some vocabulary deficiencies- or even if you don’t- there will be times when you will come across words whose meaning you either don’t know or are uncertain of. The strategy to follow in such cases is explained in the following text:

Parts-of speech: Occasionally, you may find yourself puzzled over the meaning of particular word, certain that you know it, yet, unable to ‘see’ the meaning. Then suddenly, you realize that the word is similar to the one you know, except that it is in a somewhat different form because it is a different part of speech. ‘Abortion’ is a noun of ‘abortive’ which is an adjective; prevalent is a form of prevailing. You may be able to define the word ‘shunt’ if you think of ‘shunting’, and decipher ‘decant’ through ‘decanter’.
Word in context:  The brain is a ‘store-house’ or a human computer. Everything you have ever read is in your brain/s memory hardware/ or memory bank. The problem lies in not knowing the right key to press for its retrieval. In other words, you cannot recall what you have heard or read precisely at the moment you need the information. For example, take the word ‘decant’, which you may have read in your science class, when your teacher demonstrated an experiment, and said, “Now I am going to decant the acid from the flask into the test tube containing some water. This remembered context now clarifies the meaning of word ‘decant’.
How to improve your vocabulary in a limited time
The following are steps for improving your vocabulary in a limited period.
1.    Purchase a good dictionary (get one even if you have a large and expensive one, which would be difficult to carry around with you),
2.    Keep listing new or unfamiliar words as you across them in the course o each day and consult you dictionary both for its meaning nearest word opposite in meaning.
3.    Analyze each new word, separating its root, prefix and suffix and then ascertain its true meaning from the dictionary. This exercise will make your task of learning new word easy.
4.    When you come across a new word, try to use it in actual sentences and see how it can be used in different contexts.
5.    Make use of words lists. You may have some books with lists of words along their meanings. In this section, you also find a list of words with their meanings (synonyms) and words opposite in meaning (antonyms). Divide this list into smaller groups and study it intensively.

NOTE:  With technological advancement, you can have the word power at your finger tips. Download application on you phone and refer them whenever in doubt.



Objective of this session:
                                               Provide a one-point knowledge base for various word lists
                                                Increase awareness of
·      Synonyms
·      Antonyms
·      Compound words
·      Commonly misused words
·      Plurals
·      Genders
·      Offspring
·      Foreign words
·      Sounds made by animals
·      Terms for wedding anniversaries
·      Words for specific places
·      Type of men and women
·      Various professions
·      Various fields of study
·      Miniatures
·      Various studies- Ologies
·      Types of people
·      Words related to arts
·      Word denoting various sounds
·      Words denoting groups
·      One word substitution
·      Homonyms


























List of synonyms and antonyms
The following is a list of common words along with their synonyms (words with more of less similar meanings) and antonyms (words more or less opposite meanings) to help you tackle the vocabulary section comprising synonyms and antonyms in you examination:
Word
Synonyms(similar meaning)
Antonyms (opposite meaning)
Abandon
Forsake, leave, give up, relinquish
Retian,stay with
Abase
Humiliate, disgrace, bring down, humble
Exalt, uplift, honor
Abash
Confuse, feel or made to feel ashamed, confound
Encourage, cheer to
Abate
Lessen, reduce, diminish, decline
Rais, increase ,rise
Abet
Help, assist, encourage
Discourage, hinder, block
Abhor
Dislike, detest, hate
Approve, like
Abject
Degraded, mean, grovelling, wretched or miserable
Proud, independent
Abnormal
Unusual, irregular, unnatural,
Normal, usual, regular
Abjure
Disclaim, forswear, repudiate, disavow
Accept, claim, avow
Aboriginal
Indigenous, Native
Immigrant, imported
Abortive
Futile, unsuccessful, fruitless miscarriage of birth
Successful; effective, well-timed

Word
Synonyms(similar meaning)
Antonyms(opposite meaning)
Abridge
Condense, summarized, shorten,
Expand, extend, enlarge
Abrupt
Sudden, hasty
Gentle, smooth
Abscond
Decamp, run away, go away secretly
Remain, stay, live in
Absolve
Acquit, release, pardon, set free from guilt
Condemn, sentence
Abstain
Refrain, desist, forbear
Continue, permit
Abstruse
Hidden, desist, forbear
Simple, open, revealed
Abundant
Ample, plentiful, rich, exuberant
Meagre, inadequate, poor , insufficient
Abuse
Injure, maltreat, revile, upbraid
Praise, use well
Accede
Consent, assent, comply
Refuse,regisn, quit
Accelerate
Hastern,ecpedite, quicken
Retard, hinder, reduce speed
Accession
Addition, enlargement, extension
Diminution, loss
Accommodate
Suit, reconcile, oblige
Refuse, disoblige
Accomplish
Finish, fulfil, execute, achieve
Fail, leave undone
Accord
Agreement, harmony, willingness
Discord, disagreement, unwillingness
Accredited
Authorized, entrusted, delegated
Discredited, unauthorized
Accumulate
Collect, pile up, store
Squander, waste, distribute
Acquaintance
Knowledge, cognizance
Ignorance, unfamiliar
Acute
Sharp, penetrating
Dull, blunt
Addicted
Devoted, accustomed to
 Un-addicted, free
Adept
skilful, expert
Clumsy, not expert /inexpert
Adhere
Stick, abide by, cling
Break from, come undone
Adjacent
Close, near, contiguous
Remote, distance , far away
Adjourn
Postpone, defer, delay, put off, suspend
Advance, hurry on schedule
Adoration
 Worship, reverence, beautify
Irreverence, contempt, disfiguring, ,marring
Affinity
Alliance, liking, sympathy, attraction
Dislike, discord, antipathy, repulsion, repugnance
Aggravate
Intensify, make worse
Diminish, refuse; please, satisfy
Alienate
Estrange, transfer, desolate
Reconcile, recover
Alienation
Desolation, disaffection
Allegiance, camaraderie, companionship, fellow-ship
Allegiance
Loyalty, fidelity, fealty
Disloyalty, treachery, disaffection, rebellion
Alleviate
Lessen, lighten, reduce
Enlarge, escalate, heighten
Alliance
Union, combination, league, confederation
Separation, opposition disunion, division
Altercation
Quarrel, dispute, discord, friction, strife
Agreement, consensus
Ambiguous
Doubtful, uncertain, suspicion, scepticism
Clear, simple, certainly, confidence
Ameliorate
Improve, amend, meliorate
Worsen, spoil, impair, deteriorate
Amicable
Friendly, cordial, in good will
Unlovable, unattractive
Analogy
Likeness, resemblance, comparison
Difference, dissimilar


Annihilate
Destroy, abolish, nullify, wipe out, reduce,
Restore, ratify, improve,
Antagonistic
Opposed, adverse, hostile, rival
Friendly, sympathetic, associated
Anticipates
Forestall, forecasted, prejudged, foreseen
Unforeseen, unpredicted
Antipathy
Dislike, aversion, hostility
Liking, sympathy, attachment, affinity
Antique
Ancient, old , hoary, immemorial
Modern, fresh, new, young, recent, novel
Apparent
Clear, evident, plain, conspicuous, manifest, obvious
Obscure, invisible, concealed, hidden, secret, implicit,
Appease
Assuage, pacify, lessen, alleviate, lighten
Provoke, vex, enlarge, escalate, extend, heighten
Applaud
Cheer, approve
Cry down, hiss,
Applause
Acclaim, acclamation, plaudit
Abuse, disapproval, jeering, booing, censure
Apprise
Inform, acquaint, notify,
Keep , secret, misinform
Apprehend
Grasp, seize, arrest, perceive, fear
Miss, relax, let go, misunderstand
Approbation
Approval, sanction, commendation
 Disapproval, censure, dissatisfaction
Arbitrary
Tyrannical, dictatorial, absolute, imperious
Reasonable, mind ,constitutional,
Arduous
Difficult, laborious
Easy, light, simple
Ardent
Fiery, heated, hot passionate, fervent, impassioned, zealous
Calm, cool, impassive
Arrogant
Haughty, indolent, overbearing, imperious
Humble, tolerant, modest, docile
Ascendancy
Superiority, mastery, upper hand
Inferiority, subject
Assail
Attack, assault, storm, besiege, charge
Defend, protect, uphold
Assuage
Calm, tranquilize, lessen , alleviate, lighten, allay
Excite, disturb, enlarge, esca  late, extend, heighten,

Atonement
Reconciliation, amends, propitiation
Derange, misfit, disjoin, dislocate, disarrange,
Audacious
Bold, daring, disdainful, insolent, scornful
Timid, shrinking, considerate, humble, polite, respectful

Augment
Increase, enlarge, swell, extend
Decrease, lessen, reduce,
Authentic
True, certain, genuine, veritable
Unauthentic, spurious
Auspicious
Lucky, favourable
Unfavourable, unlucky
Avenge
Retaliate, punish
Forgive, pardon, overlook
Aversion
Hostility, dislike, unwillingness, distaste
Willingness , readiness, liking
Avocation
 Recreation, employment of leisure
Vocation ,business
Awful
Venerable, solemn, dreadful, shocking
Secular, unimpressive, pleasant
Baffle
Puzzle, confuse, perplex, mystify
Clarify
Barbarous
Uncivilized, cruel
Civilized, gentle
Bare
Naked, nude, stripped
Clothed, covered, dressed
Barricade
Obstacle, barrier, hurdle
Help, open, approachable
Beguile
Deceive, cheat,
Enlighten, treat, honestly,
Belittle
Depreciate, deprecate, discredit, disparage, minimize
Credit, encourage, enhance, exaggerate



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