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OVERVIEW OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR TABLE  OF CONTENTS: Theory Part-1 Theory Part-2 Theory Part-3 Theory Part-4 Theor...


OVERVIEW OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

THEORY PART-6



MISCELLANEOUS RULES
RULES
EXAMPLES
Rule 66: Until/unless:
Mistakes are generally committed in using these words. "Until" indicates time and "unless" shows condition and means if not.
I cannot solve it unless you tell me its method.
Until she officially joined, she had no idea about the plans.
Rule 67: Doubt that/doubt whether: Doubt that is used in negative sentences and "doubt whether" in positive sentences;
I do not doubt that he will succeed. I doubt whether our country is really free. We do not doubt that he will be fully cured. I doubt whether the news is true.
Rule 68: Need/Needs: As a regular verb, need means require, in the present tense, with third person singular, when followed by a negative, the final "s" is not added.
He need not worry, (negative not is followed)' He needs to be worried, (negative not is not followed) However, regular forms should not be confused He dare not do it again, (i.e. does not have courage) She dare not come to me. (i.e. does not have courage to come to me)
However, if it is not followed by a negative word (not) or used in the sense of challenge, "s" is to be added.
She dare not disobey me. (order)
but
She dares to disobey me. (a challenge)
She dares to insult me. (a challenge)
It should, however, not be confused when used as a normal verb:
I dare, he dares, she dares, they dare, we dare, Sunita dares


RULES
EXAMPLES
Rule 69: Since/from/for: Both since and from imply a point of time (definite time, day, data etc.) and for implies period of time.
(a) "Since" indicates point of time with present perfect or perfect continuous tense,
(b) From indicates point of time with all other tenses.
(c) For" indicates period of time with present perfect or perfect continuous tense.
For example:
I have done nothing since yesterday.
She has been ill since last Friday.
She will go to school from today.
He commenced work from 30th January.
I have not seen him for a long time.
Rule 70: As long as/while/until: "As long as" and "while" are used to express the duration of an action, whereas until is used to express the time before an action takes place.
As long as you remain in the office, you will get no rest. (not until)
Wait here until I come, (not as long as)
While I am sitting here, you can work on it. (not as long as or until)
Rule 71: On/over: "On" suggests contact with something; "Over" suggests a higher position without actual contact.
Rule 72: You, he/she, I: When pronouns having different persons are used, the second person (you) should come first followed by the third person (he or she) and then the first person (I) at the end.
Keep this book on the table.
Place this cup on the table.
Keep the umbrella over your head.
You, he, and I should try to visit Sri Lanka, (not I you
and he)
It is between you and me. (not me and you)
Rule 73: Who and whom: To determine correct usage of who or whom, cover the beginning of the sentence, including who or whom and read what is left, inserting he or him. If he sounds right use "who"; if him sounds right use "whom".
It was he whom we chose to be our captain (We chose him to be captain; so use whom) It was he who we thought would win the prize. (We thought he would win the prize; so use who)
Rule 74: Prepositions are not required after words such as attack, accompany, discuss, emphasize, fear, join, request, resist, pervade, precede, violate, reach, shirk, resemble, recommend etc.
They attacked the enemy, (not on the enemy)
She resembles her mother, (not with or to her mother)
I have ordered the book, (not for the book)
One should not fear death, (not from death)
You can request him. (not request to)
Rule 75: Do not use "that" with words like how, whether, why, what, where, when, whom, whose,
which, etc.
Nothing can be said that when he is expected to arrive.
(incorrect)
Nothing can be said when he is expected to arrive.
(correct)
He could not explain that why he was late, (incorrect)
He could not explain why he was late, (correct)
It is difficult to say that whether he was succeed.
(incorrect)
It is difficult to say whether he will succeed, (correct)
In the above sentences that is not required. However,"
as to" can be used. For example:
He could not explain as to why he was late.



RULES
EXAMPLES
Rule 76: Due to/caused by:
"Due to" and "caused by" introduce adjective phrases and should modify nouns. These words must be properly related to some noun or pronoun and should not be used to begin a sentence.
Her success is due to her hard work, (modifies success)
His failure was caused by his laziness, (modifies failure)
These words should not be used to begin a sentence.
For example:
Due to workers' strike, the factory remained closed.
(incorrect)
Because of the workers' strike, the factory remained
closed, (correct)
Rule 77: Because of/on account of/so that/in order that
(a) Because of and on account of introduce adverbial phrases and should modify verbs He resigned because of ill health, (modifies resigned)
She resigned on account of ill-health, (modifies resigned)
(b) To express a cause or reason use because of and to express use in order use that or so that. Men work so that they may earn living, (not because)
He missed his class because he overslept, (not in order that/so that)
(c) Do not use because and reason together.
The reason why he missed his class was because he overslept, (incorrect)
The reason why he missed his class was that he overslept, (correct)
Or, he missed his class because he was overslept.
Rule 78: Express parallel ideas in parallel form.
(a) Adjectives should be paralleled by adjectives, noun by nouns, subordinate clauses by subordinate clauses, etc.
This generator is inexpensive, noiseless and it is easily operated, (incorrect)
This generator is inexpensive, noiseless and easily operated, (correct)
This course is challenging and an inspiration, (incorrect)
This course is challenging and inspiring, (correct)
(b) Correlative conjunctions (either ... or, neither ... nor, not only ... but also etc.) should be followed by elements in parallel form.
She is not only proficient in deskwork but also in marketing, (incorrect)
She is proficient not only in deskwork but also in marketing, (correct)
I have written both to their branch office and Head Office, (incorrect)
I have written to both their branch office and Head Office, (correct)
He would neither study at home nor would he go to school, (incorrect)
He would neither study at home nor go to school, (correct)

AVOID REDUNDANCIES
Rule 79: Redundancy refers to the use of more words than necessary to make a statement. Redundancy is moderate formality and is restricted almost completely to indicating an excess caused by tautology: redundant phrases like 'essential requisite' or fundamental basis'. It may also mean use of unnecessary adjectives or words that needlessly make the sentence a sort of re-statement by using unwanted words. These types of errors are often seen in written English communication and are not desirable in grammatically correct sentences.
Notice below that the words in brackets contribute nothing to the meaning. Avoid such wordiness or redundancy in your written communication.
(important or basic) essentials
in (the city of) Ludhiana
co-operated (together)
as a (usual) rule
(true) facts
blue (in colour)
small (in size)
ten (in number)



Examples
1. The Prime Minister's explanation represented a consensus of opinion.
In this sentence the words 'of opinion' is not required and is an example or redundancy or wordiness.
2. Shanti said that she stayed for a short period of time in the hospital.
In this sentence 'of time' is not needed because the 'period' signifies it.
3. Shri DK Oswal, our Chairman-cum-Managing Director has returned back from his European tour only thins morning.
In this sentence, one' word is sufficient, either returned or back.
4. To revise the rules of grammar refer back to Chapter II of this book.
In this sentence, the usage 'refer' is sufficient and there is no need to add 'back' in this sentence.
5. He has been warned not to repeat this mistake again.
in this sentence, the word 'again' is redundant and should be avoided.
6. in today's meeting, I saw the whole scene with my own eyes and was surprised to see the discipline of the members.
In this sentence, there is no need to add the words 'with my own eyes'.
7. I saw a widow woman standing at the gate of our Church in the morning; she probably had some trouble. In this sentence 'woman' is not required.
8. I saw six different kinds of washing machines in the showroom.
in this sentence, there is no need to add 'different' because the word 'kind' implies the meaning.
COMMON TYPES OF ERRORS CLASSIFIED
I. INCORRECT USE OF THE PRONOUN
A pronoun error generally occurs when a pronoun is used to replace a noun. This error, though major, is often overlooked, especially in conversational English. Certain commonly committed pronoun errors are listed below:
I.I Use of wrong pronoun - simple sentence
INCORRECT
CORRECT
EXPLANATION
She is taller than me.
She is taller than I (am).
(The verb 'am' is implied. So the subjective case of the pronoun 'I' is more appropriate than the objective case 'me'.)
Shayam is more honest than her.
Shayam is more honest than she (is).
(The case of a pronoun following the conjunction 'than' is determined by imaginatively supplying a verb. So, the complete sentence looks like: Shayam is more honest than she (is).
The missing element that is added is 'is'. The nominative pronoun 'she' is used there because 'she' is the subject of the understood verb 'is' in the second clause. 'Her' is wrong usage because a subject pronoun is required and not an objective pronoun.)


INCORRECT
CORRECT
EXPLANATION
Myself and Raj are great friends.
Raj and I are good friends.
(In this sentence, Rajeev and I are the subjects. T is the subjective case of the pronoun. When 'I' is used along with other names as the subject of the sentence T comes last and the verb agrees with (we) which is understood.)
He and me went to see a theatre play last night.
He and I went to see a theatre play last night.
(The pronouns are subjects of the verb 'went'. So when they are subjects of the verb, the nominative case should be used. The pronouns here are in compound construction. Both the pronouns should be in the nominative case. 'Me' in the question is in the objective case and therefore wrong. A subjective or nominative case 'T is correct here.)
They wanted me to tell you who you could approach.
They wanted me to tell you whom you could approach.
("Who" is used as a relative pronoun for the subject of the sentence. 'Whom' is the relative pronoun used for the object of the sentence. The subject of this sentence is 'they'.)
Mukherjee is a famous politician who the people like.
Mukherjee is a famous politician whom the people like.
(The choice between the pronouns, "who" and 'whom' depends on the clause to which the pronoun belongs. The pronoun is part of the second clause. 'Whom' (objective case) is correct here because it is used as an object of the verb 'like'. 'The people" is the subject of the second clause.)
Each contributed what they could.
Each contributed what he/she could.
(The pronouns 'each' 'everybody' 'every' should always be treated as singular)
All parents must come with his hall ticket.
All parents must come with their hall tickets.
(A pronoun must agree with its antecedent. The antecedent with which the pronoun must agree is 'students'.)
1.2 Missing pronoun
INCORRECT
CORRECT
EXPLANATION
The children in my school are smarter than other schools.
The children in my school are smarter than those in other schools.
(Children cannot be compared to schools. Children in one school must be compared with children (those) in other schools).
The houses in this street are bigger than that street.
The houses on this street are bigger than those on that street.
(Houses cannot be compared to streets because it is an absurd comparison. There should be comparison between equal things, but not between unequal things. 'Those of is a substitute for 'the buildings' which makes the comparison equal and correct.)
1.3 Ambiguous Pronoun
INCORRECT
CORRECT
EXPLANATION
The dewdrop on the green grass looks so beautiful that it should be pictured.
The dewdrop on the green grass looks so beautiful that the dewdrop should be pictured.
('It' could refer to both the dewdrop and the green grass).
Both the poor nations of the world and the rich nations of the world have wealth, the only problem being that their capital is not deeded.
Both the poor nations of the world and the rich nations of the world have wealth, the only problem being that the capital of the poor nations is not deeded.
(The conjunction 'but' suggests that the similarity mentioned in the first part of the sentence does not hold true for the second part of the sentence. The capital that is not deeded belongs to the poor nations.)
2. SUBJECT - VERB DISAGREEMENT
These kinds of errors are made when the subject (noun or pronoun) doesn't match the verb. Always remember that a singular subject takes singular verb and a plural subject takes a plural verb. Following are the examples to give you an idea of such errors:
INCORRECT
CORRECT
EXPLANATION
The teacher with his students are due to arrive here by noon.
The teacher with his students is due to arrive here by noon.
(The main subject here is the teacher. When the subject is joined to another subject starting with 'with', the verb agrees only with the main subject.)
The number of movies that are eyeing the Oscar are increasing.
The number of movies that are eyeing the Oscar is -increasing.
(The main subject is 'number'. 'Movieslisn ot the main subject as it is preceded by a preposition.)
The Chief Minister as well as all the cabinet ministers have attended the ceremony.
The Chief Minister as well as all the cabinet ministers has attended the ceremony.
(When the subject is joined by 'as well as', 'together with', 'with', 'along with', 'in addition to 'the verb agrees with the first part of the subject, i.e., Chief Minister)
Each boy and girl are coming.
Each boy and girl is coming.
('Each' or 'every' preceding singular subjects are joined by 'and' take a singular verb.)
Neither the officers nor the manager have informed us.
Neither the officers nor the manager has informed us.
(If one subject is singular and one is plural, and they are connected with 'either-or' or 'neither-nor' the verb agrees with the latter subject. Here, as manager is singular, the singular form of the verb 'has' is correct, and not the plural form of the verb 'have'.)
The coach or the players has its own techniques.
The coach or the players have their own techniques.
(If one of the antecedents is joined by 'or' or 'nor' is singular and the other is plural, the verb and the pronoun agree with the nearer antecedent. The pronoun 'their' is preferred because it should agree with the subject near it 'the players'.)
Slow and steady win the
face.
Slow and steady wins the race
(If the noun suggests one idea to mind, or refer to the same thing, the verb should be used in the singular not plural.
(Another example of this type is: Time and tide waits for none.)
Either Ram or I is intelligent.
Either Ram or I am intelligent.
(When the subjects joined by 'or' 'nor' are of different persons, the verb should agree with the nearer subject. 'Am' is correct here because it agrees with T, the subject nearer to the verb.)
3. PARALLEL CONSTRUCTION
This kind of error occurs when the elements of a series do not match.

INCORRECT
CORRECT
EXPLANATION
Today like any other day, I woke up, caught a bus to office, reaching after my boss.
Today like any other day, I woke up, caught bus to office, and reached after my boss.
(The verb 'woke' and 'caught' are in the past tense. Since the actions in the sentence are part of a series, the verb 'reaching' should also be in the past tense i.e. 'reached'.)
The rich have no consideration for the poor, the downtrodden and who are with the sickness.
The rich have no consideration for the poor, the downtrodden and the sick.
(The construction that is present in the question is a faulty one because the connective 'and' is not used to express parallel ideas or elements. 'Poor' and 'downtrodden' are adjectives and these are joined with the noun 'sickness. In order to make it parallel the noun 'sickness' should be changed to an adjective so that only the adjective is used in the series,)



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