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OVERVIEW OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR TABLE  OF CONTENTS: Theory Part-1 Theory Part-2 Theory Part-3 Theory Part-4 Theor...


OVERVIEW OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

THEORY PART-3



Important Words followed by Suitable prepositions
For selection of the preposition to be used with different words, carefully study the following list of important words and the suitable prepositions to be used with them. This list will help you solve questions regarding
(a)
filling in the correct preposition in the blanks.
(b)
detection of wrong prepositions used in sentences given in, 'Spotting Error'.
(c)
sentence completion questions.
Note: Prepositions are in between brackets


A                                                                                
abstain (from) food
abide (by) a statement
abound (with) living things
accede (to) a request
acceptance (of) a favor
arbitrate between two parties
annoyed (at) a thing
annoyed (with) a person account (for) a fact
accuse (of) a crime
acquit (of) blame
acquiesce (in) decision
adapt (to) circumstances
adhere (to) a plan
agree (to) a proposal
agree (with) a person
aim (at) a thing
alight (from) a carriage
answer (to) a person
answer (for) conduct
appeal (to) a person (for) a thing
appeal (against) an order
approve (of) an action
ascribe (to) a cause
ask (for) a thing
ask (from) a person
aspire after worldly greatness
assent (to) a proposal
assure a person (of) safety
avail oneself (of) a chance
admit (to) or (into) a secret
B
bear (with) a person
begin (with) the fact
believe (in) one's truthfulness
belong (to) a person
bent (on) going
bequeath a thing (to) a person
beset (with) danger
bestow a thing (on) or (upon) a person
betray (n/a) the enemy
betray (into) his hands
beware (of) some danger
blame (of) an offence
blame a person (for) something
blind (to) the danger
blush (at) the sight
boast (of) one's skill
borrow (of) or (from) a person
bring a thing (to) light
bring a thing under notice
brood (over) past things
burden someone (with) a load
burst (into) rage
buy a thing (from) a shop
C
charge a person (with)

cheat a person (of) his due

coincide (with) something else

combat (with) difficulties

commit (to) memory

committed (against) the law

common (to) man and woman

comply (with) a request

compare something (with) another

compensate a person (for) his loss

call (upon) or (on) a person

call (at) the office

call (for) punishment

catch (at) an opportunity

caution a person (against)

cease (from) quarrelling

compete (with) a person

compose (of) metal

conceal (from) others

concur (with) a person

concur (in) an opinion

condole (with) a person

conduce (to) health

confer favor (on) a person

confer (with) a person
confer (about) a thing
confess (to) a fault
confide (in) a person
conform (to) a rule or norm
conform (with) one's views
congratulate a man (on) success
connive (at) others' faults
consent (to) some proposal
consign (to) destruction
consist (of) material
consist (in) causes and results
consult (with) a person
consult (on) or about something
contribute (to) a fund
copy (from) a book
coverage (to) a point
convict a person (of) a crime
cope (with) a person correspond (with) a person ((to) write)
correspond (to) something
correspond about a subject
count (on) a thing (depend)
count (for) nothing
crave (for) or (after) happiness
credit (with) good intentions
cure a man (of) a disease
D
dash (against) a wall
drawn (on) a person
debar (from) an action
defer (to) a man's wishes
delight (in) poetry
deliver (from) a danger
demur (to) a statement
depend (on) help
deprive a man (of) a thing
desist (from) an attempt
despair (of) success
deter a man (from) action

die (of) a disease

die (from) some cause

differ (with) a person

differ (on) a subject

differ (from) anything

differ (to) opinions

digress (from) the topic

dilate (on) a subject

dip (into) a river

disagree (with) a person

disapprove (of) anything

dispense (with) a man's service

dispose (off) property or something

discharge (from) service

dissent (from) an opinion

distinguish one thing (from) another

distinguish between two things

divide (between) two, (among) many

divert a person (from) a path

divest someone (of) fear

draw money (on) banks

dominate (over) a subordinate

drive (at) some point

drop (off) a tree

dwell (on) some matter

E
elicit (from) a person
embark (on) board ship
embark (in) business '
emerge (from) the hiding place
employ (in) some work
encroach (on) other's right
endow a person (with) benefits
enter (into) one's plans
entitle (to) a property
entrust a person (with) something
envy (at) others' success
escape from custody



excel (in) music
exchange my things (with) your things
exclude (from) the class
excuse him (from) paying the fine
exempt (from) duty
expel (from) college
expostulate (with) a person
extricate (from) a danger
F
fail (in) one's purpose
fall among rogues
fall (in) love (with) someone
fall (into) difficulties
fall (in) (with) a suggestion
fall (from) the height
fall (on) the rival
feed (on) milk
feed (with) milk
feel (for) the troubled
fight (against) or (with) a person
fight (out) the reason
finish (with) a program
frown (upon) a person
fill (with) something
fish (for) words
flirt (with) a person
fly (into) rage
furnish a person (with) a thing
 furnish a thing (to) a person
G
gain on someone (in) competition
get (at) the truth
get (on) (with) a master
get out (of) debt
get (to) a journey's end
glance (at) a sight
glance (over) some writing
grasp (at) a shadow
grapple (with) difficulties
grieve (at) or (for) an event
grumble (at) the change
guard (against) or (from) danger
guess (at) something
H
hanker (after) worldly pleasure
happen (at) a time
happen (in) a place
happen (to) a person
healed (of) a disease
hear (of) a news
hesitate (at) bribing


hint (at) the solution
hover (over) the rest
hush (up) a matter
I
impress an idea (on) a person
impress a person (with) an idea
increase (in) learning
indict a person (for) a crime
indulge (in) intoxicants
indulge himself (with) wine
inform a man (of) an event
inform a person (about) a thing
initiate a man (into) bribery
insinuate (into) one's favor
insist (upon) going
inspire (with) patriotism
introduce (with) someone
introduce someone (to) someone
introduce (into) a place
intrude (into) your garden
invent (in) a factory
invest (with) power
invite (to) a party
involve a man in I a crime
issue (from) the office
J


jest (of) sorrows
jeer (at) a person
join (in) work
join (with) a man/woman
join (to) a thing
judge a person (by) his word
jump (at) an offer (readily accept)
jump (to) a conclusion
K
keep (from) meeting
keep (to) a i position
know (of) a secret

L
ament (for) the dead
laugh (at) something
lay facts (before) someone
lay a person (under) obligation
level changes (against) someone
listen (to) complaints
live (by) labor
live (on) small wages
live (for) the family
live (within) one's means
look (after) one's health
lust (after) gold
M
make away (with) a thing
make (out) the meaning
mark (upon) a career
marvel (at) one's beauty
menace (with) punishment
merge (into) something larger
mourn (for) the dead
murmur (at) one's fate
O
offend (against) traditions
operate (on) a patient
originate (in) a place or thing
overwhelm (with) goodness
P
part (with) a person
partake (of) some food
participate (with) the team


participate (in) the match
persist (in) the denial
pertain (to) the answer .
point (at) an object
point (to) some result
possess oneself (of) the goodwill
prefer one thing (to) another
present him (with) a purse
preside (at) a meeting
preside (over) a function
prevent (from) falling
pride oneself (on) something
prohibit (from) drinking wine
protect (from) loss
purge the mind (of) superstition
Q
question (on) the subject
quake (with) fear
R
reconcile (to) misfortune
reconcile (with) an enemy
refrain (from) an action
rejoice (at) the success (of) another
remonstrate (against) a person
replete (with) wealth
result (from) a cause
result (in) consequence


S
search (for) something lost
search (into) a matter (to examine)
slur (over) a matter
smell (of) a fragrance
smile (at) a challenge
smile (on) a person
span (of) time
snap (at) a person
strip a person (off) his possession
subsist (on) a small income
succumb (to) hardship
sweep the dust (off) the surface
sympathize (with) a person
sympathize (in) his troubles
T
tamper (with) the figure
testify (to) a fact
trade (in) things
trade (with) a company
trespass (against) rules
trespass (on) a man's time
trespass (in) a man's premises
trifle (with) a man's feeling
triumph (over) difficulties
trust (in) person

W/Y
wait (at) a table
wait (on) a person (attend)
yield (to) pressure
yearn (for)beauty



PROBLEMS IN ARTICLES
RULES
EXAMPLES

Rule 52: As a general rule, the indefinite article, a or an, is used with nouns in singular number only; the definite article "the" is used with any number. Whenever, a singular noun begins with the sound of vowels (a, e, i, o, and u) the indefinite article "an" is used; and if the word begins with a consonantal sound the indefinite article "a is used; as an industry, an office, an idea, an article but, a book, a copy, a table, a cupboard, a cycle
If the word begins with a consonant sounding like a vowel the indefinite article "an" is used.
An NRI, an heir (pronounced "ire")
However, if the word begins with a vowel sounding like a consonant, the indefinite article "a" is used; as a university, a European country

Rule 53: The indefinite article "a" or "an" is used before a singular noun, which is countable as well as with noun complement such as
A terrorist has been killed in an encounter. A water pump is a must in houses in Rajasthan. A cup of tea is refreshing after the day's work. Lala Lajpat Rai was a great freedom fighter.

Rule 54: An indefinite article a or an is necessary in expressions referring to numbers, speed, price and frequency such as
A kilometer of sugar
A dozen orange
60 kilometer an hour
Three times a day

RULES
EXAMPLES
Rule 55: Sometimes the use of the indefinite article "a" before and after certain adjectives changes the very sense of the word with which it is used. For example, the use of "a" before the adjectives 'few', 'little', 'slight', etc. changes the very meaning expressed by these word. Few means nearly nothing but a few means some.
Note the following illustrations:
He has little time to spare. (Means almost no time)
He has a little time to spare (means sometimes can be spared)
Few persons attended the lecture. (In negative sense means no person)
A few persons attended the lecture. (Indicates that at least some persons)
Rule 56: Nouns that are countable and singular usually take an article and nouns that are not countable do not take any article.
Water is essential for life. (Article not used)
The water in the jug is not clean. (Article the is used)
Gold is a precious metal. (Article not used)
The gold in this ring is of poor quality. (Article the is used)
Man is a social animal. (Article not used
He is the man who cheated me. (Article the is used)
Apples are good for health. (Article not used)
The apples in our orchard are not yet ripe. (Article the is used)
Rule 57 : The definite article "the" is used with things that are one of their kind.
The moon, the earth, the sky, the North Pole
The Prime Minister, the President
In other words, nouns that single out one individual or thing.
Rule 58: Definite article "the" is used before superlatives as also before only when it is used as an adjective.
This is the best book on the subject.
This is the only reason.
This is the biggest blunder you have made.
This is the only purpose of my visit.
Rule 59: "The" is used before names of periodicals and newspapers, names of important building, before names of rare or unique object, names of rivers, oceans, bays, mountains, religious group, communities, institutions etc.
I have read this news in the Tribune. (Newspaper)
The earth revolves around the sun. (Heavenly bodies)
The Taj Mahal is located at Agra in Uttar Pradesh. (Important/rare building).
The Ganges is the largest river in India. (River)
Similarly, the definite article "the" is used before the names of books (if they do not have name of persons):
The Bible, the Autobiography of Mahatma Gandhi
The Two Faces of Indira Gandhi
But:
Julius Caesar, Macbeth, Mahatma Gandhi's Autobiography
RULES
EXAMPLES
Rule 60: The definite article "the" is used before words pointing out a class or kind of a thing. It is sometimes done by using it before an adjective to represent a whole class.
The crow is a clever bird. (Means all the crows)
The young will have to shoulder the responsibility.
(Means all the young)
The brave deserve the recognition. (Means all the
brave)
Rule 61: "The" is used before a proper noun, a material, or an abstract noun when used as a common noun.
Shakespeare is the Kalidasa of English literature. The gold of Argentina is now freely sold.





PROBLEMS IN TENSES
Rule 62: Ensure that correct tense is used.
(a) Simple present tense is used to convey general or universal truth and habitual sentences.
(b) Present continuous tense is used to convey the continuity of the action.
(c) Present perfect tense is used to convey the completion of an action that has some bearing on the present.. For example
The earth revolves around the sun (a universal truth)
I always brush my teeth after the meals. (Habitual)
It has been raining for many hours. (An activity that has continued for quite some time)
Rule 63: The past tense in the principal clause must be followed by a past tense in the subordinate or dependent clauses.
I felt that she was a little worried, (not is)
I forgot that they were coming today, (not are)
I saw that the machine had stopped working, (not has)
I found that he was guilty, (not is)
I thought that she was absent, (not is)
Exceptions
(a) When a universal truth is expressed in the subordinate clause, its tense is not changed.
He said that the earth revolves around the sun. (not revolved)
I told him that honesty is the best policy, (not was)
Newton knew that the earth rotates.
He forgot that the earth rotates.
(b) When the subordinate clause begins with "than" or, "as," any tense may be the subordinate clause, even if there is past tense in the principal clause:
I met her more frequently than I meet you.
I saw her oftener than I see you.
She loved you more than she loves me.
He cared for you more than he cares for his brother.
PROBLEMS IN CONJUNCTIONS
Conjunctions are words used to join words, sentences and clauses together. Note the following conjunctions: As soon ... as
Both X and Y
Either X or Y
Neither X nor Y
Lest X should Y
Not only X but also Y
Hardly ... before or when
Though X yet Y
Scarcely ... when or before
*For example, Both Rom (X) and Shyam (Y) wen for a movie.
Neither Water nor milk could quench his thirst.



RULES
EXAMPLES
Rule 64: When a negative co-relative is used in the beginning of a sentence, a helping verb must be used before the subject (e.g. do, does, did, etc.)
Scarcely did she hear the news when she began to cry.
Not only was he accused of theft, but also of murder.
No sooner did she hear the news than she wept.
No sooner did the doctor come than she died.
Also, note that no sooner is followed by "than" and not "then"or when:
No sooner did the news reach him than he fainted, (not when or then)
No sooner did she see me than she started grumbling.
(not when or then)
Rule 65: Though ... yet
(a)When though is used with a verb in the subjunctive mood (expressing doubt, a condition contrary-to-fact, a wish, a concession) it is followed by yet and not by but:
(b) When though is used with a verb in a indicative mood (expressing a fact or making a statement) a comma is used in place of yet.
Though he might not have recognized me, yet it is rude of him.
Though she disallowed me, yet I will go to her.
Though he is my relation, I shall not spare him. Though he is known to me, I shall not favor him.



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