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OVERVIEW OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR TABLE  OF CONTENTS: Theory Part-1 Theory Part-2 Theory Part-3 Theory Part-4 Theor...


OVERVIEW OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

THEORY PART-3


4.5 Using accurate tense sequence
When you want your sentences to deliver message about actions, occurrences, or states that occur over time, you must depend on verb tenses in sequences. These sequences often include more than one verb. Using accurate tense sequences, that is, showing time relationships correctly is important for clear communication.
4.6 When independent –clause verb is in the simple resent tense, for the dependent-clause verb:
Use the present tense to show same –time action.
The director says that the movie is a tribute to Chaplin.
I avoid shellfish because I am allergic to it.
Use the past tense to show earlier action.
            I am sure that i deposited the check.
Use the present perfect tense to show (I)a period of time extending from some point in the past to the
Present-often accompanied by for or since- or (2) an indefinite past time.
They say that they have lived in Canada since 1979.
I believe that I have seen that movie before.
Use the future tense for action to come.
            The book is open because I will be reading it later.
4.7 When independent-clause verb is in the past tense, for the dependent-clause verb:
Use the past perfect tense to show earlier action.
            The Sprinter knew that she had broken the record.
Use the present tense to state a general truth.
Christopher Columbus discovered that the world is round.

WHEN INDEPENDENT –CLAUSE VERB IS IN THE PRESENT PERFECT OR PAST PERFECT TENSE, FOR THE DEPENDENT –CLAUSE VERB:
Use the past tense.
The sugar plate had become moldy since I poured it last week. Sugar prices had already declined when artificial sweeteners first appeared.
4.8 When the independent-clause verb is in the future tense, for the dependent-clause verb:
Use the present tense to show action happening at the same time.
You will be rich if you win the prize.
Use the past tense to show earlier action.
You will surely win the prize if you remembered to mail the entry form
Use the present perfect tense to show future action earlier than the action of the independent –clause verb.
The river will flood again next year unless we have built a better dam by then.

4.9 When the independent-clause verb is in the future perfect tense, for the dependent-clause verb:
Use either the present tense or the present perfect tense.
Dr. Chang will have delivered 5,000 babies by the time she retires.
Dr. Chang will have delivered 5,000 babies by the time she has retired.

THE PRATHAM EDGE
When an independent-clause verb is in the future tense, do not use a future-tense verb in the dependent clause.
No       The River will flood again next year unless we will build a better dam.
YES    The River will flood again next year unless we build a better dam.
[Dependent-clause verb have built is the present tense.]
YES    The River will flood again next year unless we have built a better dam by the.
            [Dependent-clause verb have built is in the present tense]

Tense sequences that include INFINITIVES or PARTICIPLES must be correct. The present infinitive can name of describe an activity or occurrence coming either at the same time or after the time expressed in the MAIN VERB.
SENTENCE
EXPLANATION
I HOPE TO BUY AUSED CAR.
To buy comes at a future time, Hope is the main verb, and its action is now
I hoped to buy a used car.
Hoped is the main verb, and its action is over.
I had hoped to buy a used car.
Had hoped is the main verb, and its action is over.

The present participle (a verb’s –ing form) can describe action happening at the same time driving his new car, the man smiled. [The driving and the smiling happened at the same time.]
To describe an action that occurs before the action in the MAIN VERB, use the PERFECTIVE INDEFITIVE (to have gone, to have smiled); the PAST PARTICIPLE: or the PRESENT PERFECT PARTICIPLE (having gone, having smiled),
SENTENSE
EXPLANATION
Candida claimed to have written fifty short stories in college.
First Candida wrote ; then she claimed

Pleased with the short story, Candida mailed it to several magazines.
First Candida was pleased ; then she mailed
Having sold one short story, Candida invested in a word processor,
First Candida sold a story; then she bought a word processor.

5. VOICE
Voice refers to a verb’s ability to show whether a SUBJECT acts or receives the action named by the verb. English has two voices: active and passive. In the active voice, the subject performs the action.
Most clams live in salt water. [The subject “clams” does the acting; “clams live”.]
They burrow into the sandy bottoms of shallow waters. [The subject “they” does the acting; “they burrow”.]
In the passive voice, the subject is acted upon, and the person or thing doing the acting often appears as the OBJECT of the PRESPOSITION by. Verbs in the passive voice add forms of be and have, as well as will as’ auxiliaries to the PAST PARTICIPLE of the MAIN VERB.
SENTENCE
EXPLANATION
Clams are considered a delicacy by many people.
The subject “clams” is acted upon by people, the object of the preposition “by”
They are also admired by crabs and starfish.
The subject “they” is acted upon by crabs and starfish, the objects of the preposition “by”

When you write, your decisions about AUDIENCE and PURPOSE should influence the voice that you choose for a sentence. Misusing voice usually creates problems of writing style rather than problems of incorrect grammar. For ways to identify and correct confusing SHIFTS in voice.
Write in the active voice, not the passive voice, except to convey special types of emphasis Because the active voice emphasizes the doer of an action, active constructions are more direct and dramatic. Because the active emphasizes the doer of an action, active constructions are more direct and dramatic. Active constructions often use fewer words than passive constructions and are therefore more concise. Any sentence in the passive voice that expresses the doer of the action can easily be converted to the active can easily be converted to the active voice.

ACTIVE
PASSIVE
African tribal masks are often imitated by western sculptors.
Western sculptors often imitate African tribal masks.

The passive voice, however, does have some usages. If you learn why they are, you can use the passive to advantage.
Using the passive voice when the doer of the action is unknown or unimportant
When no one knows who or what did something, the passive voice is useful.
The lock was broken sometime after four o’clock.[who broke the lock is unknown],
In 1889, the year I was born, a peace conference was held at The Hague.[The doers of the action—holders of the conference –are unimportant.]
Using the passive voice to focus attention on the action rather than or the doer of the action
The passive voice emphasized the action, while the active voice focuses on the doer of the action. In a passage about important contributions to the history of science, you might want to emphasize a doer by using the active voice.
ACTIVE                      Joseph Priestly discovered oxygen in 1774.
But      In a passage summarizing what is known about oxygen, you may want to make oxygen, rather than Priestley, the sentence subject, doing so requires a passive-voice verb.

PASSIVE       Oxygen was discovered in 1774 by Joseph Pristley
                                                                                 
PASSIVE       The unsigned letter was sent before it could be retrieved from the mailroom [Emphasis is on events, not on doer of the action.]
ACTIVE:         The postal clerk sent the unsigned letter before I could retrieve it from the mail room [Emphasis is on the people rather than the actions.

GOLDEN RULES FOR ENGLISH GRAMMAR
AGREEMENT PROBLEMS (SUBJECT AND VERB)
RULES
EXAMPLES
Rule 1: Make a verb agree in number with its subject, make a pronoun agree in number with its antecedent.
The list of spare parts was long. (singular)
the lists of spare parts were long.(plural)
Singular subjects take singular verbs (list-->.was), and plural subjects take plural verbs lists 0-->were).
Even an animal has its own territory. (Singular)
Even animals have their own territory. (plural)
Sentence antecedents are referred to by singular pronouns (animal>its) and plural antecedents are referents of plural pronouns (animals-->their).

Note:‘s’ added to a noun indicates the plural form but ‘s’ added to verb indicates the third person singular.
She favours the move.
Exception:  A plural verb is always required after you even when it is used in singular, referring to one person, eg: You were very helpful during my stay with you.
RULES
                       EXAMPLES
Rule 2: Ensure the verb agrees with the true subject and not with an intervening plural object of preposition or any other intervening plural.
The box of NestlĂ©’s chocolates is missing.
(Here the true subject is box and not NestlĂ©’s chocolates)
His experience as teacher to boys and girls gives him understanding.
The prices of the new model vary from town to town.

Rule 3: Subject joined by “and” are usually plural and take plural verbs.
His typewriter and my radio were stolen.
Sony and Sanjay are going to Chennai today.

Exception: 
(a)  If a subject consisting of two singular nouns connected by and refers to the same person or thing, a singular verb is used.
My best friends and advisor has changed his mind again.
Here the subject is treated as singular because both qualities are found is one person.
Cornflakes and milk is our Sunday breakfast.
(b)  When subject connected by “and “are preceded by each, every, or many a, a singular verb is used.
Each man and boy is expected to meet his obligation.
Every shirt, tie a coat is marked for reduction sale.
                       RULES
                      EXAMPLES
RULE 4: World like with together with, along with, besides, as well as, including, in addition to, etc. Do not affect the number of the verb. If the subject is singular, a singular verb is required; if plural, a plural verb.
The television, along with the cabinet, is to be sold.
Mrs. Paul, with her son and daughter, is going to the theatre this evening.
Our chief competitor, as well as ourselves, is obliged to increase price.
The decoration of the room, including the carpets and furniture, is most pleasing.


     RULES
EXAMPLE
Rule 5: if the subject is made up of both singular and plural words connected by or, nor, either.Or, neither...Nor, not only...but also, has the verb agreed with the nearer part of the subject.
Neither the quality nor the prices have changed. Neither the prices nor the quality has changed.
Not only the headmaster but also the teachers are in favour of the expansion of the school.
Not only the teachers but also the headmaster is in favour of the expansion of the school. Neither the salesman nor the buyer is in favour of the system.
Neither the buyer nor the salesmen are in favour of the system.


Rule6: If the subject consists of two singular words connected by or, neither ...nor, or either...or, the subject is singular and requires a singular verb.
Neither our accounts department not our head office has a record of the transaction Sunita or Neetu has the swimming suit.
Either October or November is a good vacation month.
Neither the radio nor the television was in working order.
Rule 7: Nouns that are plural in form but singular in meaning, such as news, measles, mumps, physics, electronics, tactics, economics and so on, usually take singular verbs.
News is travelling faster than ever before.
Physics has fascinated my hostel-mate for months.

Some nouns ending in –ics (such as athletics, statistics and politics) are considered singular, when referring to an organized body of knowledge and plural when referring to individual fact, qualities or activities.
Athletics provide good recreation. (I.e. various games)
Athletics is required of every student. (I.e. participation in games)

RULES
EXAMPLES
Rules 8: A linking verb usually agrees with its subject, not with its complement.
Excessive absences were the reason for his failure. The reason of his failure was excessive absences.

Rule :9 Plural verbs are required for many nouns that have no singular form, such as proceeds, goods, ashes, remains, credentials, premises, etc.
The proceeds of the magic show are to be given to the fund for soldier’s welfare.
The goods are being dispatched today by good’s train.

COLLECTIVE NOUNS: A collective noun is a word that represents a group of persons, animals or things, e.g. audience, committee, company, council, army, police, society, board, department, cabinet etc.
The following rules govern the form of verb to be used with a collective noun.

RULES
EXAMPLES
Rule 10: When the group acts as unit, the verb should be singular.
The committee has agreed to submit its report on Friday.
The board of Directors meets once in month
The firm is one of the most reputed in the country.
The majority has made its decision.


RULES
EXAMPLES
Rule11: When the members of the group are thought of as acting separated, the verb should be plural.
The team are arguing over who should be the captain. (Individual member in the team are arguing)
Rule 12: Company names may be either singular or plural, according to their meaning. The plural form emphasizes the individual personnel making up the company.
Mudra Corp have retained the goodwill of their customers.
The Oil Corporation is located at Nariman Point, Mumbail
Rule13: When nouns expressing periods of time, amounts of money, or quantities are considered as a single unit, singular verbs are used.
Then rupees seems too much for the job. Three months is too long a time to wait. The number of board member is very small. That Rs 1,00,000 was an inheritance from my father.
Yes, 5 meters is ample for a suit.

Rule14: After such expressions as one-half of, two –thirds of , part of ,majority of,
(a)  Use a singular verb if a singular noun follows the of
(b)  (b) Use a plural verb when a plural nouns follows “of”
A part of the office is closed.
Two0thirds of the mailing list has been typed.
A majority of 3500 indicates his popularity in the constituency.
Parts of the wall are to be painted.
Two-thirds of our workers live in the suburbs.
The majority of our staff members live in villages.
Rule15: The expression “The number” has a singular meaning and requires a singular verb, whereas the expression “a number” has a plural meaning and takes a plural verb.
The number of board members very small.
A number of board members were absent.
The number of orders still to be executed is estimated at nearly a hundred.
A number of our staff are going on leave.

Rule16: In sentences, containing the words one of, the verb is chosen as follows:
(a)  In simple form “one of “or “one of the”, a singular verb is used.
(b)  The sentences containing phrases “one of those who” or “one of the things that”, a plural verb is required.
One of the reasons for his demotion is his carelessness.
One of the pens is missing from my desk.
He is one of those managers who favour increasing the staff


Here, “favour” agrees with “those”. In the phrase one of those who, “those” is the plural object of the preposition “of”. In the subordinate clause who favour, the relative pronoun “who” is the subject and must agree with its antecedent “those”.
Mr.Verma is one of our officers who are accompanying me.
He is one of our employees who are always alert.
However, when only precedes one of/one of those, a singular verb is used.
Ramesh is the only one of our employees who is always alert.
Mr. Verma is the only one of our officer who is accompanying me.


RULES
EXAMPLES
RULE17: Certain collective nouns, though singular in form, are always used in the plural sense and take a plural verb. For example, gentry, cattle, poultry, alphabets, offspring etc.
These poultry are ready for sale.
There are twenty –six alphabets in English,
The cattle are grazing near the canal.

Rule 18: Certain nouns are always used in singular and followed by singular verbs. These are not used in the plural sense and do not take on plural verbs. For example hair, issue, advice, information, scenery, luggage, mischief, bread, abuse, furniture, lands, business, machinery, poetry etc.
Her hair has turned grey now.
The scenery of Kasauli is beautiful.
Is there any information in this regard?
All the machinery is old.
I have sold all the furniture that was useless.
My luggage is lying at the bus stand.




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