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OVERVIEW OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR TABLE  OF CONTENTS: Theory Part-1 Theory Part-2 Theory Part-3 Theory Part-4 Theor...


OVERVIEW OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

THEORY PART-2



2.5 Sentence Patterns: Group IV
                                                            THE SENTENCE
                                                      INDEPENDENT CLUASE
COMPLETE SUBJECT                               +                                  COMPLETE PREDICATE
The telephone                                                                                                            range.
Recognizing dependent clauses
A dependent clause contains a subject and a predicate but cannot stand alone as a sentence. A dependent clause must be joined to an INDEPENDETN CLAUSE.     
Some dependent clauses start with subordinating conjunctions such as although, because, when, until, A subordinating conjunction expresses a relationship between the meaning in the dependent clause and the meaning in the independent clause. Clause that start with subordinating conjunctions function as ADVERBS and so are called adverb clauses (or sometimes subordinate clauses).
Adverb clauses usually answer some question about the independent clause: “how”, “when” under “what circumstances” Adverb clauses modify VERBS, ADJECTIVES, other adverbs, and entire independent clauses.
Recognizing sentence types
Sentences can be simple, compound, complex, and compound complex.
A simple sentence is composed of a single INDEPENCENT CLAUSE with no DEPENDENT CLAUSES.
Charlie Chaplin was born in London on April 16, 1889.
A mime, he became famous for his character, the little tramp.
A compound sentence is composed of two of more independent clauses. These clauses may be connected by a coordinating conjunction (and, but, for, or, nor, yet, or so) or by a semicolon alone or with a conjunctive adverb.
2.6 Punctuation alert
Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction connecting two independent clauses.
His father died early, and his mother spent time in mental hospitals.
Many people enjoy Chaplin films; others do not
Many people enjoy Chalin films; however, others do not
A Complex sentence is composed of one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses.
PUNCTUATION ALERT: when a dependent clause comes before its independent clauses, comma usually separates the clauses.
When times were bad, Chaplin lived in the streets. [Independent clauses starting Chaplin]
When Chaplin was performing with troupe that was touring the United States, he was hired by Mack Semett, who owned the Keystone Comedies [dependent clause starting with “When”; dependent clause starting with “that”; independent clause starting with “he”; dependent clause starting with “who”]
A compound-complex sentence joins a compound sentence and a complex sentence. T contains two or more independent clause and one or more dependent clauses.
Chaplin’s comedies were immediately successful, and his salaries were huge because of the enormous popularity of his tramp character, which was famous for his tiny moustache, baggy trousers, big shoes, and trick derby. [Independent clause starting Chaplin’s:\; independent clause starting his salaries; dependent clause starting because; dependent clauses starting who]
Once studios could no longer afford him, Chaplin co-founded United Artists, and then he was able to produce and distributes is own films, [dependent clause starting with “Once”; independent clause starting Chaplin; independent clause starting then he was able]
3. UNDERSTANDING VERBS IN DETAIL
Verb conveys information about what is happening, what has happening. And what will happen. In English, a verb tells of an action, as occurrence, or a state of being.
Many people over over-react on Thanksgiving.
Action
Mother’s Day fell early this year.
Occurrence
Memorial Day is tomorrow.
State of being


3.1 Overview of verbs
INFORMATION VERBS CONVEY
PERSON
What or what acts or experiences an action-first person (the one speaking), second person (the one being spoken to), or third person (the person or thing being spoken about).
Number
How many SUBJECTS act or experience an action – singular (one) or plural (more than one).
Tense
When an action- past, present, or future.
Mood
What attitude is expressed toward the action— indicative, imperative or subjunctive?
VOICE
Whether the subject acts or is acted upon –active voice and passive voice
MAIN VERB
A verb expressing action, occurrence, or state of being. She talked to the group.
LINKING VERB
A main verb that conveys a state of being (is), relates to the senses (taste,) or indicates a condition (grow) and that joins a subject to a word or words that rename or describe it. (More about linking verbs follows this chart.) She was happy about speaking.

AUXILIARY VERB
A verb that combines with a main verb to convey information about tense, mood; or voice. She has talked to them before.

MODAL AUXILIARY VERB
 Include can, could, may, might, should, would, must, and others that add shades of meaning such as ability or possibility to verbs.
TRANSITIVE VERBS
A verb that must be followed by a DIRECT OBJECT a NOUN OR PRONOUN THAT COMPLETES THE VERB’S MESSAGE She spoke French with them.
INTRANSTIVE VERB
A verb that does not have a direct object to complete its message. She talked slowly.
3.2 Verb forms
Recognizing the forms of main verbs
A main verb names an action (people dance), an occurrence (Mother’s day fell early this year), or a state of being (Memorial Day is tomorrow). Every main verb has five forms.
The simple form conveys an action, occurrence, or state of being taking place in the present (I laugh) or, with an AUXILIARY VERB, in the future (I will laugh).
The past-tense form is the basis for conveying an action, occurrence, or state completed in the past (I laughed). REGULAR VERBS add-ed or –d to the simple form. IRRGULAR VERBS vary.
The past-participle form in regular verbs uses the same form as the past tense. Irregular verbs vary. To function as a verb, as past participle must combine with SUBJECT and one or more auxiliary verbs: I have laughed. Otherwise, past participles function as ADJECTIVES: crumbled cookies.
The present participle form adds –ing to the simple form (laughing). To function as a verb, a present participle combines with a subject and one or more auxiliary verbs (I was laughing). Otherwise present participle function as adjectives (my laughing friends) or NOUNS (laughing is healthy).
The infinitive uses the simple form, usually but not always following to (I started to laugh). The infinitive functions as a noun or an adjective, not a verb.
3.3 Using the –s form of verbs
The –s form of a verb occurs in the third-person singular in the PRESNET TENSE. The-s ending is added to a verb’s simple form smell smells: the bread smells delicious. However in case o plural noun, it would be: The breads smell delicious.
The verbs be and have are irregular verbs. For the third-person singular, present tense, be use is and have uses has.
The cheesecake is popular.
The ├ęclair has chocolate on top.
3.4 Using regular and irregular verbs
A regular verb forms its past tense and past participle by adding- ed, -t, -en- or- nd to the simple form the most verbs in English are regular. Some English verbs are irregular. They form the past tense and past participle in various ways.

SIMPLE FORM
PAST TENSE
PAST PARTICIPLE
Arise
Arose
Arisen
Awake
Awoke
Awoken
Be (Is, Am, Are)
Was, were
Been
Bear
Bore
Borne or born
Beat
Beat
Beaten
Become
Became
Become
Begin
Began
Begun
Bend
Bent
Bent
Bet
Bet
Bet
Bid (“to offer”
Bade
Bidden
Bind
Bound
Bound
Bite
Bit
Bitten or bit
Blow
Blew
Blown
Break
Broke
Broken
Bring
Brought
Brought
Build
Built
Built
Burst
Burst
Burst
Buy
Bought
Bought
Cast
Cast
Cast
Catch
Caught
Caught
Choose
Chose
Chose
Cling
Clung
Clung
Come
Came
Come
Cost
Cost
Cost
Creep
Crept
Crept
Cut
Cut
Cut
Deal
Dealt
Dealt
Dig
Dug
Dug
Dive
Dived or dove
Dived
Do
Did
Done
Draw
Drew
Drawn
Drink
Drank
Drunk
Drive
Drove
Driven
Drink
Drank
Drunk
Drive
Drove
Driven
Eat
Ate
Eaten
Fall
Fell
Fallen
Feed
Fed
Fed
Feel
Felt
Left
Fight
Fought
Fought
Find
Found
Found
Flee
Fled
Fled
Fling
Flung
Flung
Fly
Flew
Flown
Forbid
Forbade Or forbad
Forbidden
Forget
Forgot
Forgotten Or Forgot
Forgive
Forgave
Forgiven
Forsake
Forsook
Forsaken
Freeze
Froze
Frozen
Get
Got
Got Or gotten
Grow
Grew
Grown
Hand(“To Suspend”)
Hung
Hung
Have
Had
Had
Hear
Heard
Heard
Hide
Hid
Hidden
Hit
Hit
Hit
Hurt
Hurt
Hurt
Keep
Kept
Kept
Know
Knew
Known
Lay
Laid
Laid
Lead
Led
Led
Leave
Left
Left
Lend
Lent
Lent
Let
Let
Let
Lie
Lay
Lain
Light
Lighted Or Lit
Lighted Or Lit
Lose
Lost
Lost
Make
Made
Made
Mean
Meant
Meant
Pay
Paid
paid
Prove
Proved
Proven
Quit
Quit
Quit
Read
Read
Read
Rid
Rid
Rid
Rise
Rose
Risen
Run
Ran
Run
Say
Said
Said

See
Saw
Seen
Seek
South
Sought
Send
Sent
Sent
Set
Set
Set
Shake
Shook
Shaken
Shine(“To Glow”)
Shone
Shone
Shoot
Shot
Shot
Show
Showed
Shown
Shrink
Shrank
Shrunk
Sing
Sang
Sung
Sit
Sat
Sat
Slay
Slew
Slain
Sleep
Slept
Slept
Sling
Slung
Slung
Speak
Spoke
Spoken
Spend
Spent
Spent
Spin
Spun
Spun
Spring
Sprang Or Sprung
Sprung
Stand
Stood
Stood
Steal
Stole
Stolen
Stink
Stank Or stank
Stunk
Stride
Strode
Stridden
Strike
Struck
Struck
Strive
Strove
Striven
Swear
Swore
Sworn
Swim
Swam
Swum
Swing
Swung
Swung
Take
Took
Taken
Teach
Taught
Taught
Tear
Tore
Torn
Tel
Told
Told
Think
Thought
Thought
Throw
Threw
thrown
Understand
Understood
understood
Wake
Woke Or Waked
Waked Or Woken
Wear
Wore
Worn
Wring
Wrung
wrung
Write
Wrung
Wrung
Write
Wrote
Written

VERB TENSE
Understanding verb tense
Verb use tense t expresses time. They do this by changing form. English has six verb tenses, divided into simple and perfect groups. The three simple tenses divide time into present, past, and future. The present tense describes what happens regularly, what takes place in the present, and what is consistently or generally true; Rick wants to speak Spanish fluently. The past tense tells of an action completed or a condition ended: Rick wanted to improve rapidly. The future tense indicates action yet to be taken or a condition not yet experienced: Rick will want to progress even further next year.
The three perfect tenses also divide time into present, past, and future. They show complex time relationships than do the simple tenses.
The three simple tenses and three perfect tenses also have continuous forms. These forms show an ongoing or a continuing dimension to whatever the verb describes explained in summarizes verb tenses and progressive forms.
4.1 Summary of Tenses-Including Continuous Forms:
                                                         SIMPLE TENSES

REGULAR VERB
IRREGULAR VERB
CONTINUOUS FORM
PRESENT
I talk
I eat
I am talking;
I am eating;
Past
I talked
I ate
I was taking;
I was eating;
Future
I will talk
I will eat
I will be taking;
I will be eating


                                                       PERFECT TENSES
PRESENT PERFECT
I have talked
I have eaten
I have been talking;
I have been eating
PAST PERFECT
I had talked
I had eaten
I had been talking;
I had been eating
FUTURE PERFECT
I will have talked
I will have eaten
I will have been talking;
I will have been eating

NOTE: Most verb tenses are formed by combining one or more AUXILIARY VERBS with the SIMPLE FORM, the PRESENT PARTICIPLE, or the PAST PARTICIPLE of a MAIN VERB, auxiliary verbs are necessary in the formation of most tenses so be sure not omit  them.
No I talking to you
Yes I am taking to you.
Using the Simple present tense
The simple present tense uses the simple of the verb. It describes what happens regularly, what takes place in the present, and what is generally or consistently true. Also, it can convey a future occurrence with verbs such as start, stop, begin, end, arrive, and depart.

Calculus class meets every morning.                     [Regular occurring action]
Mastering calculus takes time.                    [General truth]
The course ends in eight weeks.                 [Future event with end]
4.2 Verb alert for writing about literature:
Use the present tense to describe or discuss action in a work of literature, no matter how old the work. In Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet, Juliet’s father wants her to marry Paris, but Juliet loves Romeo. For action prior to or after the action, you are describing or discussing, use the correct sequence of tenses as explained.
4.3 Forming and using the perfect tense
The perfect tense generally describe actions or occurrences completed, or to be completed, before a more recent point in time. Use the PAST PARTICIPLE together with AUXILIARY VERBS to form VERB PHRASES. For the present perfect, uses “has” along with the past participle for THIRD PERSON SINGULAR SUBJECT and “have’ along with the past participle, for all other subjects.
PRESENT PERFECT
Our government has offered to help.[Action completed but condition still in effect]

PRESENT PERFECT
The drought has created terrible hardship.[Condition completed and still prevailing]
PRESENT PERFECT
We have always believed in freedom of speech [Condition true once and still true]

For the past perfect, use had with the past participle. For the future perfect, use will have with the past participle.
PAST PERFECT
As soon as the tornado had passed, the heavy rain started.[Both events occurred in the past; the earlier event, the tornado’s passing, was completed before the later event, the rain’s starting, took place, so the earlier event uses had.]
FUTURE PERFECT
Our chicken’s egg production will have reached 500 per day by next year. [The event will be complete before a specified or predictable time.]

4.4 Forming and using progressive forms
Progressive forms show an ongoing action or condition. They also express habitual or recurring actions or conditions. They use the PRESENT PARTICIPLE (The –ing form) of the verb together with the appropriate form of the verb be as an AUXILIARY VERB.
For the present progressive, use the form of “be” that fits with the subject in PERSON and number, plus the present participle: I am thinking, you are thinking, she is thinking.
For the past progressive, use was present participle: I was thinking, you were thinking, she was thinking.
For the present perfect progressive, use “have been” or “has been” to fit with the subject.
In all other progressive tenses, the auxiliary verbs do not change form to show person and number.

PRESENT PROGRESSIVE
The smog is stinging everyone’s eyes.[event taking place now]
PAST PROGRESSIVE
Eye drops were selling well last week.[event ongoing in the past within stated limits]
FUTURE PROGESSIVE
We will be ordering more eye drops than usual this month. [recurring event that will take place in the future]

PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE
Scientists have been warning us about air pollution for years.[recurring event that took place in the past and may still take place]
PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE
We had been ordering three cases of eye drops a month until the smog worsened.[recurring past event that has now en  ended]
FUTURE PEFECT
In may we will have owned this pharmacy for five year[ongoing condition to be completed at a specific time in the future]



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